Tag Archives: Mt Warning

Matristic Starlore and the Biblical Law in Australia

On the east coast of Australia’s most easterly point are two ancient volcanoes…..The Tweed Volcano and the Focal Peak Volcano…… Green jewels in the crown of the UNESCO World Heritage listed Australian East Coast Gondwana Rainforest Reserves….A remnant sliver of lush emerald rainforest on one of the oldest, driest desert continents on this planet…

The Tweed and Focal Peak volcanoes are the ancestral homeland estates of two very ancient Origine tribes, who have been on this land ever since the ‘Alcheringa’ – which in their dialect translates as “the beginning”……And unlike many other Origine tribes lore’s of creation, which usually involve migration and arrival to the vast southern island, this particular lineage have a very different ancestry….with their tradition’s lore’s and custom’s descending from the Carpetsnake Clan lineages …arguable one of the most ancient lineages on earth…

The respective names of these two ancient tribes are the Ngarakbal and the Githabal, and they are actually not tribes, but Marriage Moieties… Their lore say’s they did not come here across the sea……They say they were always here…. since the Dreamtime…..and their creation lore’s say they were made here…by the Sky-Ancestors….way back in the Dreaming….

The term “Moiety” means half…and their marriage moiety kinship, or ‘Skin Lore’ system can be explained in this way…..

Ngarakbal are one half ….Githabal the other….and just as every human on this planet required a mother and a father to come into existence, so too the ancestral Ngarakbal Githabal marriage moieties follow this natural lore which flows down from the celestial realm…from the stars….so [naturally] their totemic kinship system operates in accordance with star cycles, which are indisputably the greatest calendar system governing our known reality.

Following the rhythmic pentagram star cycles of our universe, the Rainbow Serpent, Grandmother [All-Mother] and Seven Sisters traditions define and govern the Skin Lore’s, recording changes in environment and climate and providing priceless information in regards feast and famine…..increase and decrease…..Vital information that allows not only for survival of the moiety but also how to assist the surrounding natural biodiversity to thrive and survive solar cycles…

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Totemic allocation defines each individual’s responsibilities within their respective ancestral estate….so that everyone learns to care for and increase their totem species for the greater good of the moiety members to share at harvest…..

Their Skin Lore system also defines correct marriage and, like any contract, the Skin marriage system facilitate seasonal reciprocal access rights to travel and harvest adjoining moieties ancestral estates….the marriage system also ensure optimal health of the moiety…by breeding out weakness – creating strong genetic bloodlines of mitochondrial DNA lineages which are arranged into totemic subgroups….each moiety having many totemic subgroups within its ancestral area….with no individuals of aligned subgroup ever being allowed to marry…over many generations this Skinlore system is effective in minimising birth defects and eradicating disease

To achieve this symbiotic harmony between people and environment requires very strict protocols…..again, all governed by the star cycles….and this is how the Origine culture survived for so long unbroken…

The Ngarakbal ancestral estate, the Tweed Volcano, has been known as ‘Grandmother Country’ ever since the Alcheringa – the beginning – the dreaming …… along with the Githabal ancestral estate, the Focal Peak volcano, being perpetually known as ‘Grandfather Country’….

The Alcheringa is a physical place – the highest waterfall on the escarpment’s linking the two volcanoes….Water being the binary element of their Rainbow Serpent Lore….The Ngarakbal and Githabal call the Serpent, Warrazum, who created the land…nightly the creation journey can be read, just like a book, in the heavens above their volcano’s…travelling across the skies with the Grandmother [All-Mother], the Seven Sisters and the Grandfather and his son……with kangaroo’s and dogs, rivers and trees…..all travelling together.

Written in the stars and mirrored on the land….Feminine, masculine, negative, positive, above and below, the Ngarakbal Githabal moieties and their antediluvian culture elegantly defines the connections of all life on this planet through their Dreamtime lore’s of creation….For them humans are not the supreme species, but a branch on the tree of life in which all life is connected and mutually dependant…Starlore …gifted from the Sky Heroes……Linking everything through the waters…with all the creation deities displayed across the milky way….

Contemporary science [of 2016] can now show us that almost every element on earth was formed at the heart of a star; including water, and all life which developed from it…even us…The Ngarakbal and Githabal Dreamtime Lore explains exactly this in eloquent loveliness…..explaining super nova explosions that effect our earth- in metaphor….for the greatest expansion of life this planet has ever know was caused by stars…….these natural lore’s are facts of evolutionary creation….linking everything together in what anthropologists call Matristic Lore systems.star birth

Matristic Lore systems recognise and revere both the masculine and the feminine of all life forms and the origins of all life from the stars ….The term Matristic describes nomadic tribes that lived and cultivated huge interlinked estates and moved together following seasonal migrations of herds, while at the same time harvesting established food forest landscapes of fruits, seeds, tubers, fish, birds and animals across these vast estates…..with access rights being governed by the marriage skin lore’s….

Burrigan springbrook wallabyThese annual migrations usually involves a travelling trinity….being a herd, followed by a tribe, being followed by dogs, or in some continents it was cats….in Australia this is Kangaroo herds, followed by the moieties, being followed by dingoes – travelling through forests of trees……in the America’s it was Bison, Indians and Coyotes travelling through forests …in Europe and Asia it was Reindeer and wolves travelling though forests…Africa and south America had the big cats instead of the dogs…..but this matristic patterning and the masculine, feminine, tree and [water] serpent icons associated with it can be identified in ancient cultures across the globe…and all pre-patriarchal, which is the law system we live under now.

Equality – Unity…naturally and harmoniously…..in accordance with celestial lore, recording and heralding cosmic creation events which mean life or death for our world…..And, as in the case of many global nations, Matristic lore cycles were also revered…with cosmic events remembered in magnificent temples and pyramids….or, as in Australia, the Living Land [which is created by the stars] was preserved much as the biblical Eden….naturally and unmolested….with djurebil [sacred sites] of significant geological  formations respected and their creation process sung…recounting the essence of how they were brought into being because of the forces of the planetary Sky Heroes….

When one is aware of the nuances within the Dreamtime’s Astrotheological principals,  of all life and form being created by the mythical SkyHeroes, one quickly understands that Origine cosmology is actually explaining the classic sciences in myth and metaphor…..Sciences like astronomy, hydrology, geology, physics, biology, astrophysics, etc., and how all life is created through the interaction of these natural lore principals….using universal concepts to do so – from a time before writing…..male, female, trees and serpents….from the Alcheringa…..which appear to have morphed into what we now know as the old testament bible stories – including  the Adam and Eve story…..with the most beautiful thing being that these Astrotheological deities can actually be seen in the celestial skies of the southern hemisphere…. known as the Eelemarni Dreaming – a bootheram about marriage lore deities Leho and Leva or Kumbarra and Burigan – these astotheological forms appear specifically above the most eastern land of the Australian continent, Byron Bay,  at Winter Solstice in the ancestral Origine estates of the Ngarakbal, and travel west across the sky into the estates of the Githabul…..depicting “a marriage made in heaven”…..this ancient lore was recorded in an award winning short film called “Eelemarni” by Lorraine Mafi Williams and featuring Githabal Elder , Mrs Millie Boyd  

Since the systematic conquering of the ancient tribes of earth by patriarchal Rome, and the replacement of those cultures with biblical doctrine, which is the first book of Land Tenure Law,  the methodical elimination of Matristic Culture has been enacted all over the world…..Matristic knowledge once known to the whole planet literally slipped [back] below the horizon into the southern realm of the Grandmother leaving many metaphysical questions to secrets unanswered and ancient monuments un-deciphered..

The North, being unable to see to below the southern hemispheres Tropic of Capricorn slowly forgot about the SkyHeroes and the marriage [star] lore they enshrine….. Northern survivors fell into amnesia…their communal lands appropriated and claimed using biblical legislation – which are exactly the same land tenure laws global governments’ still use today.

Rome’s patriarchal legislation created the ‘Rule of Law’ regarding the tenure of the lands that were conquered and assimilated by Rome across the northern hemisphere…of which ancient Britain, Australia’s legislative ‘mother land’, was one…..

Basically the maxim of possession [of land and chattels] is awarded as “first in time, first in law” ….and seeing as no ‘first’ written law existed in those ancient times, Rome wrote one…. allowing lands to be acquired and retained by [stealthy] administration…. thereby overthrowing all indigenous tribal tenure everywhere… And anyone who resisted was eliminated..

1,800 years later when the first invasion missionaries enacting the Rule of Law tenure process over Australia arrived in the south, bringing the ‘truth’ to the ancient volcano moieties by ushering in their  exclusively patriarchal law system, they forced the people to renounce their language along with their Origine Astrotheology and its volcano cosmology and obey the [Roman] doctrines which had excised the All-mother and the sacred marriage between the masculine and feminine centuries before….. Those missionaries were delighted at how quickly the Origine people took on the word of God – Our Father who art in Heaven – Unlike the Origine peoples they were completely unaware that the tribal peoples could see his celestial form rise above the great southern island  Nguthungulli walking across sky

Today many denigrate the Origine peoples claiming they have denounced their own culture and replaced it with the bible….which the initiated in star lore know is not true…

That the Origine peoples can see the Astrotheological Sky Hero deities recorded in the old testament spiralling out of the south celestial pole – in annual cycles…. encompassing the full Matristic Lore which commences with the All-Mother, that Rome excised from the bible thousands of years ago,  travelling west with the All-Father to sink down in the heavens onto the oldest land on this planet ….3600 million year old Marble Bar in Western Australia ….geologically it is the first land to emerge from the sea – just as the old testament records in Genesis … The point being that they didn’t allow the missionaries to replace the Origine culture at all…they actually concurred…

The irony of all this being that contemporary patriarchal governance’s own common law maxim [derived from the bible] outlining  “right of possession”, being the first in order of time shall prevail, is perfectly preserved in the timelessness of Matristic Starlore for all the indigenous cultures of the earth…..For though Roman law can re-write a book, destroy a library, change the names on a map, or assimilate a tribe, it will never, ever, be able to erase the stars… they were there first…

For more information on Matristic Starlore please visit my blog at stellawheildon.com.au  ……….. And if you would like to receive more of my posts then join my newsletter [its free] and they will be emailed to you direct…. Hoo Roo

 

Matristic Origine Dreamtime Lore – part 1

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The Origine cultures of Australia are the oldest living cultures in the world….and the last unbroken Matristic cultures on the planet…….

Matristic Lore is neither patriarchal or matriarchal , but instead is derived from the ancient nomadic traditions which honoured both sacred masculine and scared feminine for their own essential qualities….qualities ‘gifted’ to them from the celestial realms from which all life descends

One of the reasons the Origine have survived for so long is their ability to live in harmony with the grand celestial cycles which impact our solar system and planet. The Origine people’s ability to adapt to change has allowed them to maintain their ancestral traditions unbroken since the Alcheringa, which is the Ngarakbal Githabul dialect for  ‘the beginning’ of the dreamtime.

Commencing on the east coast of Australia the ancient matristic lore of the Origine Dreamtime radiates across the continent.  Spiralling from the south celestial pole the ancestral creator beings rise one by one in the Australia skies in the unending celestial particle dance of All Creation.  Refreshing and recreating the journeys of the Sky Ancestors which birthed our solar system including this small blue planet we all call ‘home’.

For the past 200 years, since invasion, the spirituality of the Origine culture has been deemed primitive and incapable of supporting genuine religious life. Messianic Christianity undermined Origine spirituality in the belief that the Origine had been living in darkness prior to the advent of the church in their lives.   As a result the Origine people found themselves the victims of cultural genocide.  Their traditions and beliefs swept aside without treaties to protect them, without even official acknowledgement of their humanity until the 1967 civil rights recognitions. And still the systemic dispossession of the ancestral traditional lore’s and customs continues today, despite many voices calling for its preservation and perpetual protection.  The oppression and disenfranchising of the Origine peoples continues in an attempt by contemporary [patriarchal] corporate governance to maintain tenure of the rich and abundant resources of the great southern land….a pattern of administrative governance inherited from Rome and used all over the contemporary world today.

All administrative governance is derived from the Roman church doctrines…..all law.

These Roman laws are exclusively patriarchal and have no inclusion of the feminine to balance and sustain the earth in accordance with natural lore…..and so everything and everyone are subjected to entropic decay – and a dying planet

On the flip side the ancient natural lore, commencing with the All Mother, who is terrestrially defined in Australia as the Tweed Caldera Volcano, the most eastern land form of the southern continent, and it still holds  the embers of the last fire of the ancestral matristic lore – a fractal lore of increase rights and obligations which once encircled and unified the entire planet …..even now this last fire battles from being extinguished as a result of patriarchal law processes…. and erased from the face of the earth just as the Romans encompassed all of the ancient ‘goddess’ religions of the globe.

However, today, science is validating the profound truths of the wisdom held within the ancestral matristic lores essence.  Academic researchers and historians are piecing together the surviving fragments of cultural heritage and working with Origine Wisdom Keepers to reignite the fires of traditional lore and culture of the matristic lineages of Australia in peace and harmony with all nations for the greater good…..the Vision – to rebuild a new global paradigm of community and love for all, from the embers of the old matristic lore.  A lore that encompasses and acknowledges the sacred connectedness of every life force and form sharing this precious orb, together….

One Earth. One Sky. One Lore

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Guyoongun Bootheram – Star Lore

The Ngarakbal Githabal are part of the Yoocum Yoocum moiety from the most eastern point on the Australian continent…..and Guyoongun Bootheram means Star-Lore in Ngarakbal Githabal language…..

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This is a small film extract from a lecture I gave at the Science-Art Research Centre in Uki, Northern New South Wales…..it was 2007…. during José Argüelles [Mayan Prophecies]  tour of Australia…..I was given permission by the Elders of the Ngarakbal Githabal to present their lore on their ancestral country…it was a great honour and a big responsibility…..it was also my very first lecture to a large crowd whilst being filmed…….I was very nervous…… many of the senior Elders were in attendance, including Elders from Central America, South America, Canada and New Zealand….as well as Jose, and  a myriad of enlightened and learned souls…This is only about 10 minutes out of the 75 minute film….just the beginning…..Hope you enjoy it

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The Australian Missing Link……Slavery, Maps, Marriage Lore and Mucky Divorces….

Australia [OZ] the ‘Great Southern Land’ was claimed in 1606, by the Dutch on the West coast and the Spanish on the East coast…..and then in 1770 it was ‘re-claimed’ due to a mucky ‘divorce’, treasonous mutiny, Religious squabbles and the lucrative slave trade legacies of the Northern Hemisphere…..for 164 years we have been denied the truth due to deliberate alteration of cartographic records – MAPS…It’s the missing link to the truth of what really happened in OZ…and, here’s my [short] version of how it happened….in 3416 words…and as always, there is a nice cultural surprise at the end….but please read the info first…its important…thanx

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Port Curtis near Gladstone Queensland was established as a colony by the Portuguese in 1606 – on the continent they named Terre Australe Du S Espirit

Marriage is a sacred contract and an age old means of alliance and tenure of nations globally…..and, sometime marriages break down….and when they do, assets must be divided….and this, often, leads to WAR….Australia and its people were an asset…a land of wealth and toil…toil, as in SLAVES….

islander slavesSlavery was abolished in British Colonies in 1834, but slaves were ‘apprenticed’ until 1838… this is a horrible legacy we share with many other Southern Hemisphere nations….but it was a war that took place in 1718 that would seal the fate of Australia as a Commonwealth Nation…but that war was not on Australian soil…and the evidence of why and how it happened was buried in a mountain….a mountain of cartographic geospatial paperwork…

Now, we all know that the “Alteration of Traditional Lore” by invading governance has occurred globally….Conquerors kill off knowledge holders [seen as adult threats] and then they commence destroying maps, libraries and all records of the native adults that could re-surface to be used in later times as evidence to shows prior tenure of lands….The pattern usually goes on to appropriate the cultural ‘temples’ of the invaded nation, enslave adult survivors and commence reprograming the ‘orphaned’ children to forget their ancestral heritage and become compliant slaves….

We can trace this pattern in the dissemination and subsequentdivide and conquer devices assimilation [or abrogation] of ancient global lore’s….much of it can be identified in the biblical texts….and it is from the biblical texts that the legal instruments regarding Laws of Land and Title to Land have been developed….Laws that ‘validate’ tenure, and conveniently absolve the souls of those who commit the dirty deeds….

A further process of classic ‘divide and conquer’ tactics is to outlaw the use of ancestral language and replace it with the language of the conqueror – by indoctrinating the child survivors….and this too is part of ‘validating’ tenure….for Lore Land and Language are linked…So, as each ancestral land and culture are ‘claimed’ and the conquered either killed or enslaved,  the conquerors then busy themselves in rewriting cartographic records [maps] –  renaming places and obliterating languages associated with specific locations of the original people – they do this as quickly as they can….These processes I refer to as being ‘geospatial alterations’ ….and this type of modus operando process can be traced all the way back to the Roman invasions of Egypt…

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First letter from the Queen’s office at Buckingham palace, regarding the Ngarakbal people

I began learning about this stuff by default….I was a ‘helper’ for an original ancestral Australian, Mrs. Marlene Boyd – of the Ngarakbal Githabal people on Australia’s east coast…and in helping her I began to see a pattern of what appeared as geospatial alteration….our focus of attention was a sacred Ngarakbal mountain…’Wollumbin’, which had been gazetted as Mount Warning by Captain Cook… the administration were trying to have it dual named – recognise it as being a sacred site named “Wollumbin”…but that wasn’t the problem – the problem was they the administration was trying to say that the ancestral language of the location was NOT Ngarakbal, but another language from another location and another tribe ….lots of letters and meetings with departments ensured….over time a clear pattern emerged…at first it was just in Ngarakbal Githabal lands, but I quickly realised it had, and was indeed still, occurring all over Australia…but most notably [and traceably] on the east coast……So I would like to tell you a story….it’s actually His-story…no, actually it’s Her-story….and to understand how it happened in Oz we need to begin in Egypt.

800px-The_Burning_of_the_Library_at_Alexandria_in_391_ADThe destruction of the Library of Alexandria ‘ended’ the Library of Alexandria…it was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world…..famous for having been burned, resulting in the loss of many scrolls and books, and it has become a symbol of “knowledge and culture destroyed”……..Ancient and modern sources identify four possible occasions for the partial or complete destruction of the Library of Alexandria….. Julius Caesar’s fire during his civil war in 48 BC….. the attack of Aurelian in AD 270 – 275…..the decree of Coptic Pope Theophilus in 391 AD…..and the Muslim conquest of Egypt in (or after) AD 642…..

Whilst the library was sacked…some of the records survived….most notably the maps to the treasures of the ancient world….which included the maps of the Egyptian voyages to the lands of the Red Kings – or Australia….the land of the Bird Tribes, and Birds are what the Ngarakbal Githabal call the Feathered Serpents….

Ok….Now we need to fast forward to England to the middle- ages…to the reign of Henry VIII – 1491 to 1547….Enter, the legal instrument of DIVORCE

AA portrait of King Henry VIII by or attributed to Joos van Cleve from about 1535ll-righty…so…before becoming King in 1491, Henry was the Prince of Wales…..he then became, Henry VIII and he was a Roman Catholic, under the authority of the Pope in Rome – the same ‘line’ that had invaded Egypt and sacked the library of Alexandria……The Catholic Church did not recognize divorce, and Henry wanted a divorce from his first wife, Catherine of Aragon because she could not bear him any children (specifically, male heirs)…….. He wanted to marry another young woman named Anne Boleyn…but first he needed a divorce…..so, after failing to get the Pope in Rome to give him a “papal dispensation” (which would have given him special treatment by allowing the divorce), he basically forced the Archbishop to grant him a divorce, in direct opposition to the Pope, leading to a breaking away from the Catholic Church….

anne-boleyn-roseBy having his own Church Henry believed he had now solved his problems…. He got to marry Anne, and he saved his soul from Catholic ‘damnation’….and then he decided to behead Anne… anyway….point is regardless of Anne’s demise, the Church of England was born…..Rome was NOT happy.

So, after Henry VIII died, his son, Edward VI ruled until his death 9 years later……and before shuffling off Edward changed his will so that his cousin, Jane Grey, would become queen even though she was the 4th in line (because if not, then Mary, a staunch Roman Catholic married to the King of Spain, would succeed and reverse all Henry’s breakaway reforms)………. Poor Jane ruled for just 9 days until Edward’s sister, Mary, came and beheaded her for treason…….then, Mary ruled until her death…doing exactly what Edward feared and with great bloodshed…….. Then, Elizabeth I [I = the first] took the throne and ruled for a rich 45 years…and she also beheaded her cousin, [but] then named the cousin’s son her successor and this successor was James I ……… and he ruled England from 1603 to 1625….and it here, at this crossroads, where the invasion of Australia – and the sorry tale of the legacy of Henry’s mucky divorce – began…

James the first It is during James I reign that Australia is ‘discovered’…. in 1606, by both Spain [Portugal] on the East and Holland [Dutch] on the West….one Catholic, one Protestant…..thanks very much Henry

Here is a brief over-view of the timeline of events……..

James I was the son of Mary Queen of Scots, so when James became King of England, he was already a king – King James VI of Scotland…… He was the first monarch to rule both countries and the first to call himself ‘King of Great Britain’…and James was married to Anne of Denmark – a Lutheran and a direct descendant of the Viking Kings – the oldest monarchy in Europe – global seafarers…..also at this time James I authorised the translation of the King James Bible…and by 1604 England and Spain make peace, whilst Spain and the Netherlands agree to an armistice

So…then…. in 1605 the ‘Gunpowder Plot’ was hatched…Guy Fawkes, and his Catholic friends, tried to blow up the Houses of Parliament, but were captured before they could do so…and at this same time, the King of Spain, along with the Pope had sent a Spanish Captain Pedro Fernandez de Quiros orders and resources to sail to the Great Southern Land,  via South America……

So the Dutch set out for the Great southern land and on 26 1669 -closeupjpgFebruary 1606, the made landfall near the modern town of Weipa and the Pennefather River, but were promptly attacked by the original people… the Dutch Captain, Janszoon, then proceeded down the coast for some 350 km. He stopped in some places, but was met by ‘hostile natives’ and some of his men were killed. At the final place, he initially had friendly relations with the natives, but after he forced them to hunt for him and appropriated some of their women, violence broke out and there were many deaths on both sides. These events are recorded in Aboriginal oral history that has come down to the present day…..Here Janszoon decided to turn back, the place later being called Cape Keerweer – Dutch for “turnabout”.….

Meanwhile, the Spanish [Portuguese] appeared to sail to South America…then sailed off [unnoticed] and claimed the Australian east coast – establishing a colony in Gladstone Queensland and travel along the east coast to the lower latitudes to chart – and they too experienced reprisals from the ancestral original peoples…….but they did name the continent as Terre Australe Du S Espirit….and they left other artifacts

Discovery An image of what is thought to be a kangaroo on a 16th century Processional could lend weight to the theory the Portuguese were the first explorers in Australia Photo Debbie Cuthbertson
Discovery: An image of what is thought to be a kangaroo on a 16th century Processional could lend weight to the theory the Portuguese were the first explorers in Australia. Photo: Debbie Cuthbertson

….”A tiny drawing of a kangaroo curled in the letters of a 16th century Portuguese manuscript could rewrite Australian history.

The document, acquired by Les Enluminures Gallery in New York, shows a carefully-drawn sketch of kangaroo (know as a ”canguru” in Portuguese) nestled in its text and is dated between 1580 and 1620. It has led researchers to believe images of the marsupial were already being circulated by the time the Dutch ship Duyfken – long thought to have been the first European vessel to visit Australia – landed in 1606.

The pocket-sized manuscript, known as a Processional, contains text and music for a liturgical procession and is inscribed with the name Caterina de Carvalho, believed to be a nun from Caldas da Rainha in western Portugal….”…..Charli Newton 16th Jan 2014 – Sydney Morning Herald

Read more: http://www.smh.com.au/entertainment/books/the-roo-that-could-rewrite-history-20140115-30vaw.html#ixzz3CXDccBhr

Also….See my previous post for the transcripts of de Quiros… https://stellawheildon.com/2014/09/03/east-coast-of-australia-colonised-over-400-years-ago-164-years-before-cook/

Oceania Early DiscoveriesSo….The entire modern world has been totally indoctrinated to believe that Australia was discovered in 1770 by Captain Cook….whole Libraries are filled with books espousing this as gospel truth – right around the planet….but of course, it isn’t – it’s a cartographic sleight of hand….you see the maps got changed by the conquerors….it was the same old pattern of divide and conquer and geospatial alteration….and Australia, often noted as being a nation of sheep with a “she’ll be right mate” attitude, forgot to remember the truth, let alone question it…..so,  how did the British wipe out 164 years of pre-crown Australian occupation…and fool the world for 160years

Well….for a start – it’s the era of SLAVERY….and there are many twists and turns to a good story…but to tell it straight we need to stick to the timeline……so, after the Great South Land,  Terre Australe Du S Espirit was colonised in 1606…what then?….

By 1625 James I second son Charles was crowned King of England and he was married to Maria of France….Charles fought against Parliament and caused a civil war and as a result got himself executed on 30th Jan 1649…..

Now,  the English Civil War had begun in 1642 when Charles, seeing his rights as King slashed by the parliament, stormed the Palace of Westminster to have five members of parliament arrested for treason…but all the politicians escaped on him…and, as a result the civil war between the Roundheads [supporters of Parliament] and the Cavaliers [supporters of the King] commenced….The Civil War led to the trial and execution of Charles I, the exile of his son Charles II, and the replacement of the English monarchy with first Commonwealth of England….(1649–1653) and then with a Protectorate (1653–1659), under the personal rule of Oliver Cromwell, the Lord Protector……thus, England became a republic for eleven years [1649-1660]….and then the Commonwealth was declared on 19th May 1649……

So, It is this Commonwealth [Parliament] , that goes on to re-claimed Terre Australe Du S Espirit – and order the geospatial alteration of the prior 1606 colonisation of the east coast by the Portuguese…..but,  it has to kick the Monarchy out first, which it does – and there has not been a Queen (or King) of England since 1707 – just figureheads [constitutional Monarch only] and the whole of the Commonwealth is controlled by the Parliament…thus, age old Marriage Lore and alliances between nations were no longer relevant….Britain and its colonies become totally administrative…kind of the same way that corporate parliament has now operated in Australia since 2001…

South-Sea-CompanyOk…back to the timeline…so after the parliament takes control of the Commonwealth The South Sea Company was formed – in 1711 –  supported by Robert Harley as a Tory competitor for the Whig Bank of England……The company was promised a monopoly of all trade to the Spanish colonies in South America in exchange for taking over and consolidating the national debt raised by the War of Spanish Succession – which had occurred from 1701 to 1714 ……google it – its relevant to all this, or you can read about it in one of my books, or subscribe to my newsletter….

Ok, back to the timeline…..The value of this promised trade monopoly was closely tied to the outcome of war…and, the Treaty of Utrecht effectively ended the war in 1713….. The treaty curtailed the scope of trade opportunities for the South Sea Company by confirming Spain’s sovereignty over its new world colonies…..and, it’s important to remember that at this point in His-story SLAVERY is a very real thing in all the countries….and the Southern Hemisphere was where most of the Slave hunting was occurring

Ok…back on the timeline…..so, In 1714 Queen Anne, of England,  dies and is succeeded by King George I, first of the Hanoverian dynasty [of the Commonwealth Parliament]….remember, the monarchs have no power by this stage and Parliament has gained total control… so then….in 1715 France fails in an attempt at crowning the ‘Old Pretendner’, James Francis Edward Stuart King, in the Jacobite Rising ……and, in 1716 the Disarming Act attempts to secure the peace of the Scottish Highlands…so by 1718 The War of the Quadruple Alliance begins against Spain –  with Great Britain, France, Austria the Dutch Republic and Savoy opposing King Philip V’s attempt at retaking his Italian possessions which he had lost in the War of the Spanish Succession….

By 1719 there is an attempted Spanish invasion in support of Jacobites –  with the fleet sailing for England dispersed by storms, troops land in Scotland, and are defeated at the Battle of Glen Shiel ……..and by 1720 Philip V loses the War of the Quadruple Alliance, renouncing his claims in Italy under the Treaty of the Hague……..This causes Collapse of the South Sea Company and results in a London stock market crash in which the average depreciation in value in stock was some 98%…….everyone is BROKEsouthseahouse-fullThe South Sea Company was left with limited options in the slave trade, the interest to be paid by the government on the loan from the South Sea Company, and narrowing trade opportunities in the Spanish colonies in South America…..They need assets….and so….they decide to use people, and trade the people as an asset on the markets….and remember, Slavery is legal then….so, people are deemed goods and chattels, or to put it another way, tradable assets…is (1)

So…by the time the 17th century came about, Spain had a glorious century behind and a lot of enemies ahead…and got hammered in war….this was England chance…. the Parliament controlled British Commonwealth decided to go for Terre Australe Du S Espirit – is potential for slaves was vast and it was loaded with geological assets…..and so it is here that the altering of the maps to hide the assets begins…

Cook is dispatched with orders to re-map the east coast….Following colonisation by the British, the geospatial alterations to obliterate the Portuguese cartographic records commences forthwith…and what better way to cover the Portuguese’s pre-crown colonisation than to use the original languages of Australia’s first people…

Major Thomas Mitchell the first surveyor General of NSW
Major Thomas Mitchell the first surveyor General of NSW

The cover-up really commences when Major Thomas Mitchell the first surveyor General of NSW, under orders from the Crown [controlled by the Parliament] was ordered to establish a claim of proprietorship over the then most distance and elusive parts of the continent….to do on land what Cook had done from the sea…to go out and map and NAME all the major geographical features….

Mapping and naming were the prerequisite functions, before the action of tilling the soil, for the British to legally claim the continent. And so Mitchell went out to map and name and thus take legal possession of the continent of Australia for the Parliament.

The crown gave explicate orders for the Aboriginal names to be used…it did this for a very important legal reason…..to wipe out the Spanish [Portuguese] tenure…. Using the Aboriginal names…the British could prove their legal tenure over the lands

As Mitchell stated…..

“The great convenience in using native names is obvious…so long as any of the Aborigines can be found in the neighbourhood…future travellers may verify my map.  Whereas new names are of no use in this respect…..”…..

And it is this ‘diabolical cover-up’ that is the critical missing link of what actually occurred in global His-story….and the tradgedy is that, due to Native Title being achieved in 2001, it still occurs to this day…..you see, they have to change the geospatial records [maps, shire boundaries and geographical names] again, because the Aboriginal languages they used to cover-up the Spanish tenure in the first instance, now provide the evidence of the original peoples ancestral estates….how’s that for ironic….or karma

The Commonwealths pattern of geospatial alteration has been enacted in the ancestral lands of the Yoocum Yoocum, of which the Ngarakbal and Githabal are ancestrally and inextricably linked…..it was the original name of the most eastern ‘cultural bloc’…it included  the Yugambeh [Jukambe]  the Northwest, around Ipswich and as far south as Canungra and Beadesert and east as far as Oxley…..Githabul [Kitabal] to the west – including Main Range volcano…..Widjabal [Wadjie] to the South, south west – who include the Bundjalung Tribe [proper]…not Nation, but Tribe …..And;  Ngarakwal [jergarbal] to the east – to the ‘boorgoor’ [the sea]

metsonThe “Yoocum-Yoocum dialect which extended from the Logan River south to midway between the Clarence and the Belinger River, and all New England from Armidale to near Warwick, whence it was joined by the Wacca-Wacca of the Darling Downs, the dialect which came down the north side of the Brisbane River to the sea and Toorbul Point and down the Burnett to the sea at Bundaberg”..Metson 1923……

But the Commonwealths administration sliced the Yoocum Yoocum moiety up [quiet deliberately] using their classic geospatial alteration patterns when they gazetted the New South Wales/Queensland border….Their administrative headquarters was in Armidale in the times of legalised Slavery….and so, they decided to re-classify the Yoocum Yoocum lands that now were known as New South Wales to Bundjalung…and the Queensland remnant became Yugambeh…..so, by the simple stoke of an administrative pen, they have caused all manner of trouble, strife and suffering for the ancestral descendants ever since……

Mucky Divorces…Religious Cults…Slavery and Fraud with altering the maps to hide the assets……and now they are trying it again….what a tangled web…

© Stella Wheildon 2006 -2014

Anyway…here’s nice cultural note to finish on…..its a recording of  Aunty Millie Boyd [nee Williams] explaining the ancestral Marriage lore’s of the Eelemarni to Howard Creamer as part of the National Parks Aboriginal Site surveys of 1977….The Lore she is explaining comes from the Yoocum Yoocum epoch, so you will hear her talking about Bundjalung [as being  one of the tribes of Widjabil] as a marriage clan of the Githabal, Ngarakbal and Yugambeh of up Southport way, the Northern Gold Coast in Queensland….she is talking about sites and lore pre-invasion and how they bind us all to country thru the sacred waters…

Marriage Lore – ‘Skin’ Lore is sacred – interwoven to the Rainbow Serpent [water lore] and the Seven Sisters – the Sky-Heroes and all the other Bootheram…..

In order to survive we have to drop the crap and move past the divide and conquer patterns and come back together…its time….

If you would like know more then check out the archives on my website stellawheildon.com….and to receive more of my posts then subscribe to my newsletter [it’s free]…and they will be automatically sent to your email…..Hoo Roo

The Feathered Serpent Traditions – Carpet Snake Clans of The Bird Tribes

The Ngarakbal Githabal peoples are part of the once vast ‘Yoocum Yoocum’ Moiety….. These ancient peoples are the East Coast ‘Custodians’ of the Feathered Serpent Traditions [or, Bird Tribe Lore] which is intrinsically linked to The Seven Sister ‘Skin’ Lore of the Rainbow Serpent…..the most ancient religion on the planetsnake

The Yoocum Yoocum are the large ‘Cultural Block’ of one of the most densely populated regions of the Australian Continent before invasion by the Crown… and, despite the aggressive invasion of the East Coast, the ancestral lore survived….it’s a wonderful thing that it did, for these people hold ancient lore that is the last piece of the puzzle to unifying many of the ancient global mysteries.

The Ngarakbal Githabal peoples are descendants of the “Carpet-snake clans” of Australia…..Their Carpet-snake [water-snake] Lore traditions and culture come from the ‘Alcheringa’ – the distant ancient ‘Dreamtime’ past….These traditions once traversed the island continent….the origin of the Rainbow Serpent Lore

300px-RainbowSerpentThe Rainbow Serpent is a most important Ancestral Being within the Yoocum Yoocum and associated aligned moieties across Australia…It governs every facet of their ‘Skin’ Marriage Lore’s of Creation and Fertility – the spiral of Birth, Death and Rebirth….Their Central Spirituality governing the ‘Cycles of all Life’…The Rainbow Serpent is intrinsically interwoven with the ‘Skin’ Marriage Lore of the Seven Sisters – Arguably the oldest Religion on the Planet…

…’…Our Rainbow Serpent Dreaming is the oldest continuous documented religious theme in the world…over 60,000 years of Women’s Lore…’…..Lorraine Mafi Williams- Widgabal – Bundjalung proper

The Lore’s begin with landscape creator journeys from the coast of the Wollumbin Caldera – the most easterly point of the ancient Australian continent – and the Lores come from the ‘Alcheringa’….This word – ‘Alcheringa’, and the Rainbow Serpent Lore, and the Seven Sisters, feature in the regional dialects of other ancestral estates across the continent….but, these traditions are not in every Aboriginal culture….Some have been replaced due to ancient invasions and wars of the distant past – They have different beliefs – creators, ancestors and cultural values – the same as different religions have spread around the planet throughout time….

The Alcheringa [Lore] once travelled right across Australia…It has been recorded as part of ‘skin’ marriage lore in several ancestral regions, including the eastern cultural blocks of the Wakka Wakka, the Gubbi Gubbi, the central New South Wales Komilaroi, and also the Urabunna and Arunta peoples in the red centre of the continent…There are also regions of the west coast moieties in the Pilbara – but the Alcheringa is certainly not limited to just these…as with all ancestral Lore, within each specific ancestral estate and with each ones specific language, the sacred sites to commemorate the ancestors creation journey are maintained and utilised by the ‘custodial’ clans…joining the creation ‘songs’ together, much like pearls on a necklace, makes the ‘songline’….and many of these ‘songlines’ are governed by celestial bodies – the transits of stars.

The east coast in Ngarakbal Githabal country is the beginning of the Alcheringa – marked by a ‘djurebil’ [sacred site] that is located high in the rainforest mountains, in the aquifer watershed of the two east coast volcano’s…This djurebil [sacred site] was created by the Carpet Snake Clan ancestors….the Carpet-snake clans are the oldest clan on the continent…the ancient ones….

The Alcheringa creation ‘songline’ travels from ancient geological sites now submerged beneath the waves of the eastern Pacific Ocean – from the distant past when the sea water was locked in ice and the land extended out much farther than it does today ….but the djurebil remains…and weaves to the west – as serpents do…it is the pathway of the Rainbow Serpent ancestor, making the water paths within the geological features as it travels….

big buggram and little buggram
Big Bootheram on the left [background] and little Bootheram, snaking up on the right [foreground]
Rainforest ridges, Mountains in their own right, once named ‘little’ and ‘big’ Buggram [Bootheram] are divided by a deep gorge that the Rainbow Serpent gouged on its journey…after creating Little and Big Bootheram it travels up – higher than Wollumbin [Mount Warning] – higher than Julgumboong [Mount Lindsay]…it creates a great Plateau “Dhungura-ngarian”, which the white man named Lamington Plateau and traveling on to Mount Worendo, where it creates a series of waterfall cascades that plunge down through the rainforest…it is there, high in the remote rugged Macpherson Ranges, of the Caldera’s rim that the highest waterfall is created…and it’s djuriebil name is ‘Alcheringa’….and it is the name of that waterfall still….

Alcheringa falls - Lamington Plateau
Alcheringa Falls – Lamington National Park

The Ancestral totemic ‘beings’ not only created the geological features and aquifer systems of the continent, but also carried and distributed objects which were the sources of ritual and tribal Lore as well as the sources of all forms of life, including the people themselves….

In the Bootheram of the ‘Alcheringa’ there exists a comparatively small number of individuals who were half human and half animal or half plant…The Ngarakbal Githabal say that these ancestors didn’t ‘come here’ but that they were ‘made here’…that they are the original Carpet-snake Clan’s…The Bootheram records them as being created by ‘God’- Babbarra is one Ngarakbal Githabal word for describing God …Duramulan is another…….

yowiesBootheram teaches that these half-human creatures were endowed with far greater powers than any living men or women now possess. They could walk about either on the earth or beneath it and could fly through the air….They were the children of ‘God’ and had inherited a portion of the qualities of their creator…they were themselves as ‘demi-gods’…and these ‘demi-gods’ are the ancestors of the existing totemic clans ….’Family’…Ancestors… Nimbinje as the Ngarakbal Githabal call them – or the “Hairy fellas”…the original clans – Carpet-snake totemic clans – they went all over the country, creating the djurebil…making them with sacred ceremonies, songs and dances for the people to enact throughout time….

carn - carpetsnake clan 1
Rainbow Serpent Djurebil site

The creation ancestors, in the act of ‘creating’, would leave deposits in the ground or in some natural feature such as a rock or a water pool, which transformed the site into a djurebil…and, high on the escarpment between the two volcano lands is one such carn of boulders, which was ‘made’ by the Rainbow Serpent…and, it is in this same area that the ‘Eelemarni Marriage Lore’ is deified…joining Ngarakbal to Githabal……All Bootheram Lores link together

So, what is Bootheram?

Bootheram is the Ngarakbal Githabal dialect name for the Dreamtime LORE…or LAW of all creation…Its Spiritual, complex and parallels numerous scientific disciplines

Northern hemisphere peoples (recently) developed numerical & alphabetical values to explain time and creation of this galaxy, this solar system and this planet…Bootheram explains the same thing…

Bootheram uses plants and animals and creation Heroes and Heroines metaphorically to denote each timeframe, for each creation sequence [epoch] and ‘holds’ it orally…through ceremonial songs, dances and sacred ritual at djurebil sites

Bootheram uses the landscape and the sky as the reference points of this creation lore….a living library…written into the land and mirrored in the sky, for all to see….indelible native science held in oral format…..And it is the Lore that Bootheram must NEVER be changed…

The sum total of the Bootheram of the Ngarakbal Githabal Feathered Serpent Traditions tells the complete history of the creation of the ‘universe’ beginning with 8 culture hero’s….It is obviously metaphoric and [naturally] linked to Bird Tribe Lore…..so, let’s look at one of the metaphoric Ancestral Creator Birds…..

Bootheram has many layers of meaning…and one such layer depicts (dreaming) timeframes…Oral lore for chronological markers of ‘Bird Tribe’ Mythology events….or, Totem as a Timeline……For example….One of the Landscape creation ancestors is the Turkey – ‘Woggun’ means Bush Turkey in Ngarakbal Githabal …and Woggun the Creation Ancestor Turkeys name is ‘Wollumbin’….Picture5

Picture6
Mt Wollumbin is shaped like a Bush Turkey

‘National Landscape ©’ icon Mount Warning – Wollumbin – is a World Heritage listed Erosion Caldera – what we see today is the remnant volcanic plugs of a once vast Shield Volcano…the central plug of the caldera is, for the Ngarakbal Githabal , shaped like a Bush Turkey….Male Bush Turkeys build mounds….Shield Volcanoes are Mounds….it’s a metaphor…..’Bird Tribe’ creation Lore…..there are many more profound layers to it, but it’s not relevant to a cyber format

So…..In 1977 as part of the National Parks and Wildlife Aboriginal Site Survey of NSW, Ngarakbal Githabal ‘custodial knowledge holder’ Mrs Millie Boyd recorded the significance of Mt Warning with Howard Creamer, Anthropologist …Mrs Boyd had learnt this Feathered Serpent Lore from her Mother Charlotte Williams [nee Brown] …..Aunty Millie related the Bootheram [unchanged] of the Totemic Ancestral Birds gathering to ‘learn the lingo’ [Language]…..Then all flying from Mount Brown [which is located in the Richmond Range of Northern NSW]……….All the Birds fly from Mount Brown to claim, settle and name the ancestral tribal Totem sites in the ancient Yoocum Yoocum Landscape…….

“Turkey Flew to Mount Warning…’….Mrs Millie Boyd

Ok…so what’s the Metaphor of Feathered Serpents?

“….The birds are the Feathered Serpents, the descendants of the Goanna beings; and we are the descendants of the Bird Tribes who also come from this Bootheram… The Birds gave us our lore, land and language…. We are the Bird Tribes….”…..….Marlene Boyd – Ngarakbal Githabal – grand-daughter of Charlotte Williams…

feathered-ornithomimus

When the Bootheram was being recorded western science hadn’t discovered that birds evolved out of dinosaurs….this has only come to light in the last decade….But the Ngarakbal Githabal descendants knew….they have always know…they ARE the Bird Tribe…..

Here is one of their Bootheram Lore’s from the Lamington Plateau of the Macpherson Ranges, which the Ngarakbal Githabal call “Dhungura-ngarian”…it was broadcast on radio in 1968 and published the same year….the ‘custodian’ relating this Bootheram was Mr James Morgan – who was another 1967 civil rights campaign “Hero of the people”….Like all the Bootheram, it sounds like a nice little story about animals…but it has profound layers….There are djurebil sites all around the ranges that were created by the ancestral Carpet -snake Clans to mark this important Bootheram…for this is the story of the first Corroboree ring….the very first one…it is a sacred story, and it must NEVER be changed

Picture23

……..”In the time which is Bootharrum or the dreamtime there lived a pelican who played on a plateau.

The name of the plateau was Dhungura-ngarian, which means “where the Pelican Played”. The corroboree ring of the pelican was on the plateau of Dhungura-ngarian……”……

…”In the Bootharrum all the birds were the same colour but one day they decided that it would be much better if they were not all the same, so they painted themselves in different colours. From that time they have kept the colours they painted themselves on the plateau of Dhugura-ngarian…”..

“…The Crow painted himself black….The paint that he used was made from burnt bark of the Bloodwood tree”….

….”The parrots adorned themselves with bright paints of many colours. And all the birds chose the colours they liked best. Then the birds gathered together for a corroboree on the plateau of Dhungura-ngarian….”….

….”One day, Old Man Pelican, who was very fat, was walking away from the corroboree ring when he heard someone laughing.

“He turned around to see who was laughing and saw that it was the crow…”…

“…The crow was laughing at him, laughing at the way he walked because he was so fat….”…

….”Because the crow had laughed at him Old Man Pelican picked up a piece of the dullong and threw it at the Crow…..”…..

Picture27….”The piece of clay hit the Crow in the eye and to this day the white in the eye of the crow can be seen where Old Man Pelican hit him……”

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The Black Dog Spirit of Fingal – Aboriginal Lore of East Coast Australia

The Ngarakbal Githabal are the ancestral aboriginal people of the most easterly land on the Australian continent….a landscape protected by their ancestral spirits…one such spirit is ‘Ineroogun’ – the Black Dog of Fingal Heads….arial fingal

The ‘accepted history’ books tell us that the Tweed / Gold Coast environs were established by the colonialists in the mid 1840’s…. this is a sanitised pro-crown ‘His’-storical view…..

The first Cedar getters [wood cutters] were claimed to have arrived by boat in 1844…commencing the indiscriminate ‘clear fell’ denuding of the Gondwana Super Forest from the Brunswick River, just North of Byron Bay and throughout the Tweed Caldera…However the oral traditions of the Ngarakbal Githabal indigenous Aboriginal people tell of this lands invasion beginning well before the 1830’s…The first white skinned invaders they say also arrived by sail boat…. but contrary to the contemporary history presented by government,  the traditional Aboriginal people – the Ngarakbal Githabal- tell of a prior arrival of the Spanish in the 1500’s coming to Byron Bay and Fingal Heads…All pre-crown arrival has been eradicated from the authorised historical records… a prior arrival in Australia would nullify the Crowns claim of Terra Nullus as unoccupied lands….and this is not a popular political option…

portret_W_Blaeu-280x300Anyway, over one hundred years after the Portuguese-Spanish arrived, the first Dutchman to get to Australia was Willem Janszoon aka Jansz in 1606…… Not much is known about his early years, other than he was born in 1570, but what we do know is that he served the Dutch East India Company (VOC), which was a chartered company established in 1602 to carry out colonial activities in Asia…….  In 1603, he became captain of the Duyfken, which means ‘Little Dove’, and it was aboard this ship that he first sighted Australia while searching for outlets of trade near New Guinea…… Once he crossed the Arafura Sea, he travelled west and landed on the western coast of Cape York just near Weipa…possibly, following charts that had been captured from the Spanish

Jansz-mapJansz started to chart the area, thinking that the land was still New Guinea, but after finding nothing but swampy land and violent encounters with Aborigines, he decided to throw in the towel and return to Indonesia…..He called ‘his’ new found land ‘Nieu Zeland’, but the name didn’t stick and was used by Abel Tasman about 40 years later for New Zealand…which is located off the eastern coast of Australia.mmmmm……..Now, Aboriginal Elders are insistent that two Spanish landings took place in the ancestral coastal lands of the Ngarakbal Githabal people, on the east coast of Australia…One at Byron Bay and another at Fingal Heads…..Both are purported to be Spanish Shipwrecks which occurred at Suffolk Park south of Byron Bay, and on Cook Island, situated just off Fingal Headland

Fingal Headland is a beautiful place…its known as “Mynjung Booning”……… “Mynjung”, which is the Ngarakbal Githabal word for ‘place of’;  and “Booning”, which means Echidna …Place of the Echidna…… Fingal’s precise location is Latitude -28.199042, Longitude 153.571315fingal

Separating the Tweed River from the Pacific Ocean, Fingal is a narrow peninsula several kilometres long. It ends at the mouth of the Tweed river and on the opposite bank lies Queensland. . The peninsula north of Fingal village is known as Letitia Spit, a sand spit that has been slowly accreting due mainly to the construction of the river’s southern training wall – from rock quarried from Fingal

Aboriginal associations stretch well back into the dreamtime with anthropologists claiming that the area supported one of the densest nomadic populations to occur anywhere in the world. Skeletal remains of people estimated to have been around seven feet tall have been found on the Peninsula….

In contemporary times Fingal has been referenced as “Pooning”…most notably in the crowns geospatial lands records  for LAW, Land and Language are linked…..and the ancestral people understand that for its the same in traditional Lore – Lore,  Land and Language are linked – but,  the crown chooses to only recognise the name ”P[b]ooning”  for Fingal….[the ‘P’ and ‘B’ sounds blurr together  when enunciated…]…..

echidna2P[b]ooning” is the Ngarakbal Githabal name for the Echidna, or Australian porcupine…and the word P[b]ooning is attributed to Fingal Headland because of the rock formations that occur on the headland…. Spectacular basalt columns that resemble the spines of an echidna, and, the ancestral Ngarakbal Githabal people believe that the spirit of the echidna inhabits these headlands…Burleigh Heads located to the north also has similar formations and is also traditionally referred to as being a “Mynjung” [Place of] “P[b]ooning” to the Ngarakbal Githabal…and several other sites that this rock formation occurs in are too.fingal causeway by G Shlatter  (1)

Anyway……There used to be a large cave at Fingal, but it was blown up to form the break-walls of the Tweed River ….. For the Ngarakbal Githabal the cave site is the ‘dreaming home’ of a protective [supernatural] hairy man said to abide in that cave on Fingal Head and also a giant black dog whose story is linked to the creation of the McPherson Range…but the crown chooses NOT to recognise these ancestral Lores or that the Ngarakbal Githabal totemic ancestral name for Fingal is ‘Inneroogun’ – the Black Dog…..said to now roam the area, homeless….since the Cave was destroyed

fingal causeway by G Shlatter  (2)The columnar basalt lava flow at Fingal Headland extends underwater to Cook Island (named after Lieutenant James Cook who explored the east coast of Australia in 1770)…… The lava is thought to have come from the prehistoric Tweed Volcano and is known as “Lismore Basalt”; predominantly tholeiitic with occasional alkaline types…….. This unit is stratigraphically equivalent to the Beechmount Basalt in Queensland – west of the Lamington Plateau….which is also refered to by the Ngarakbal Githabal as being a “Mynjung” [Place of] “P[b]ooning”……

Now,…I need to include all this historical and geological stuff in order to explain how the Ngarakbal Githabal Bootheram Lore, Land and Language are linked, to geospatial lands records….and thus, land tenure.

The jointing, clearly evident at Fingal Head is caused by contraction: as lava cools from the outside toward the centre, shrinkage cracks develop, usually forming hexagonal patterns (the shape of the columns is attributed to tensional stress). These columns are vertical because the lava cools from top to bottom when the flow of lava is horizontal

Just before the turn of the century, the Department of Public Works blasted and quarried the massive basalt caves of Fingal Head….and in the process they desecrated the ‘djuribil’ [sacred site] of the Ngarakbal Githabal……. During the1950’s and 60’s sand miners cleared and destroyed not only most of the littoral rainforest which blanketed Letitia Spit but also numerous burial sites, including at least one of the former massacre sites.

All of this destruction occurred during the crown occupation process when the ancestral peoples were being systematically relocated to policed reserves…moving them further and further from their ancestral lands….and due to their legal status as being Flora and Fauna up until the success of the Civil Rights ratification in1967, the blood-line to country descendants of the ancestral people of Fingal have remained dispossessed….however, their Bootheram [Dreaming] Lore survived and was even used to save the Fingal area from massive development…which I’m getting too…

Fingal has historically been coveted as a beachside development site since early occupation but has always managed to remain protected…This protection was largely because of the Ngarakbal Githabal Aboriginal recording the totemic significance of the area and having their language embedded into the geospatial lands records by the crowns first Surveyor’s under order of the old Queen, Victoria.. …Lore Land and Language are linked, so the surveyors used Ngarakbal Githabal language on the original maps…..but, since the advent of Native Title in Australia, the crown is none too happy that the ancestral dialects of the ancestral people are on the geospatial records [the maps]…seemingly because the language attribution [of Ngarakbal Githabal] is the evidentiary material required to claim Native Title ….so, it’s much simpler for them to reclassify it to Bundjalung…change the language classification changes the tenure….it’s an old formula applied globally….

Anyway…back to Fingal…..Throughout the seventies the residential community of Fingal continued to make land claims over Letitia Spit despite the fact that they had no legislative basis on which to rely….. None of these claims were successful [ the residential community not being of the ancestral bloodline of Ngarakbal Githabal country]…Then, after the introduction of the Aboriginal Land Rights Act in 1983, the residential community linked together with other local groups to form the Tweed Byron Local Aboriginal Land Council and immediately lodged new claims over the Spit as well as other pieces of Crown land at Fingal……as a government entity the Aboriginal Lands Council were able to circumvent the non-bloodline prerequisite – write new laws that enabled development …So, In 1986, the Aboriginal lands Council and the Department of Lands negotiated ‘a deal’ in respect of the Spit……The residential community agreed to withdraw all but a small portion of their original claim in return for the Department instituting a Plan of Management over the remainder, aimed at ensuring the land’s protection for future public use….To their credit, the Local Aboriginal Land Council went to some expense in preparing its submission on the Plan of Management…… However, once the claim was withdrawn the Department refused to proceed, and instead commenced researching potential development options…..Of note is that over the subsequent decades several fresh land claims have been made, and like the initial claims,  none of which have included the Ngarakbal Githabal…and;  subsequently, none of the claims were successful…..since then, the geospatial records linguistic attributions have seemingly been stealthily and steadily changed to Bundjalung….

Developers, Ocean Blue Club Resorts Pty. Ltd., posed the first big threat to Fingal They negotiated ‘a deal’ with ‘the department’….planned to build an international hotel on an important dreaming site and remnant littoral rainforest, a luxury marina on a protected wetland area, and a 400 townhouse /condominium complex in place of the existing village. Both the hotel and marina site were Crown Land and zoned as either public open space or for environmental protection….. At the same time, the Public Works Department commenced a feasibility study into the possibility of cutting a new entrance to the Tweed River through Letitia Spit to make a “Super Harbour”…. If approved, the Department intended to pay for the construction work by selling the remainder of the Spit to private developers…… One firm, Adco Constructions Pty Ltd expressed interest in acquiring the land and put forward proposals for around one billion dollars’ worth of tourist and residential developments….. Such intensive development was considered necessary to absorb the sixty million dollar cost of river works.

In order to prevent development of their ancestral djurebil [sacred site] the Aboriginal Lands Council contacted the Ngarakbal Githabal knowledge holders for help…they needed the ancestral Bootheram Lore to save Fingal…..

Now;….The first pro-aboriginal recordings of the Aboriginal significance of the area were made in 1950’s by Mildred Norledge from Kyogle – endorsed by Professor Elkin…She recorded the Ngarakbal Githabal Bootheram from Elders such as Mr James Morgan; Dyraaba Tribe – west of Lamington Plateau…and Mr. Joe Coolhum; Mebbini Tribe – Tweed Heads…These two gentlemen had spoken about their ancestral custodial Lore as their intrinsic contribution to the Civil Rights Campaigns to free their people from the crowns ‘non-human’ status…..They are two more of the Ngarakbal Githabal ancestor Heroes who showed the crown, through their Bootheram, that they did indeed have their own cultural ‘religion, and did not deserve to be legally classified as Flora and Fauna…

The next wave of recordings commenced in the late 1970’s by Anthropologist Howard Creamer for the National Parks and Wildlife Service Aboriginal Site Survey Team…Howard was instructed to identify ancestral knowledge holders within the community…one of the Cultural Elders whom he interviewed was Mrs Milli Boyd of Woodenbong, who was the daughter of Mrs Charlotte Williams [nee Brown] as part of the governments Aboriginal Site Survey Team of National Parks and Wildlife Services…….This information was then used to obtain further interviews of Mrs Milli Boyd [nee Williams]….principally Dr. Margaret Gummow [building upon the work of Anthropologist, Howard Creamer and Linguist, Margaret Sharpe]….This cultural evidence was then used by the Tweed Byron Aboriginal Lands Council to launch legal action, and a subsequent corruption investigation, in regards development at Fingal Heads…

And these are the cases in which the Ngarakbal Githabal ancestral cultural information was used….Tweed Byron Local Aboriginal Land Council v The Minister Administering the Crown Lands (Consolidation) Act and the Western Lands Act & Ors [1990] NSWLEC 67 (19 June 1990)…and TWEED BYRON LOCAL ABORIGINAL LAND COUNCIL v. THE MINISTER ADMINISTERING THE CROWN LANDS ACT [1995] NSWLEC 220 (14 December 1995)…… “By Notice of Motion filed in Court on 23 October 1995, the Tweed Shire Council seeks to be joined in pending Class 3 proceedings involving a number of land claims made by the Applicant pursuant to the Aboriginal Lands Rights Act 1983 (the Act) at various times between 4 January 1988 and 27 March 1992, in respect of various parcels of land having an aggregated area of some 300 hectares situate on the coast line at Fingal in the Shire of Tweed near the New South Wales-Queensland border”…..

……“The Independent Commission against Corruption [ICAC] has yet to release its report and has so far made no findings, but the evidence presented to it has graced the front pages of the metropolitan newspapers for months. Evidence before ICAC revealed that Ocean Blue had paid large secret donations to both the Labor and National parties at times when, as the respective Governments of the day, they were considering Ocean Blue’s application for Crown land at Fingal. The Administrator of the Tweed Byron Local Aboriginal Land Council alleged that an officer of Ocean Blue had attempted to bribe him into furthering the company’s interests. Lawyers from the Department of Lands claimed that they were misled in leasing the quarry site to the wrong company and both Wal Murray and Ian Causley declared that, had they known what they do now about Ocean Blue, they would have refused to deal with them. Whether or not the Ministers were in fact aware of the donation is an issue on which the ICAC has still to make a finding”….Andrew Chalk

And it was the Ngarakbal Githabal ancestral cultural information which won the case…..and Lore was recorded in LAW….

…..“To my knowledge, there are four recordings of this [Mt Warning] song in existence, all performed by Boyd. The first was recorded by Howard Creamer of the NPWS as part of a project concerning aboriginal site protection. I recorded the second performance in 1985 in relation to my PhD research on Bundjalung and Gidabal songs [Gummow 1992]. The Linguist Margaret Sharpe recorded the third performance in 1989 in connection with a project funded by Aboriginal Legal Aid concerning the environmental impact of land and land rights at Fingal Head. The Fourth was recorded on video in the early 1980’s by Lorraine Mafi Williams. In an attempt to preserve traditional material, Mafi-Williams produced the film Eelarmarni [sic] in 1988, which featured Boyd explaining some of the mythology and singing several songs from the area.”…[Gummow;1985;7A   Barwick-Marett-Tuntill 1995:121-131; Tweed Byron Aboriginal lands Council v Tweed Shire Council v the Minister for Crown Lands; and the ICAC INVESTIGATION into North Coast Land Development ]

The following information is based on recordings made in 1989 by Sharpe, speaking with Mrs Milli Boyd [nee Williams] who had learnt the Ngarakbal Githabal Bootheram Lore’s from her Elders… It comprises part of the mythology of the area [Sharpe 1989].

Mount Warning is the shape of a Turkey’s head, and according to Aboriginal people in the area a spirit being called Wollumbin, a wild turkey, lives inside the mountain. Wollumbin owned two dogs, one male and one female, which are associated with Mount Warning and Fingal Head…..One day the dogs were chasing a kangaroo along a ridge. They chased him from Fingal Heads over to Boonah near Beaudesert in Queensland. They eventually came to water and the dogs drank than lay on the bank. Two young girls from a nearby camp came to get water, saw the dogs, and went back to the camp to bring more people down to the river. After spearing the two dogs, they put them on a pole and began cooking them over a fire…….Wollumbin had followed the dogs and knew they had been killed. He flew down onto the flat where the dogs were being cooked and caused a wild storm. The people left to find shelter from the storm. Wollumbin took the dogs off the fire, wrapped them in bark and carried them back to Mount Warning. As he flew across the country, parts of the dogs’ bodies dropped onto the ground below and formed part of the landscape. He went back to Mt Warning and placed the dog’s bones in the water. One dog was placed in the Tweed River near Mt Warning and the other was placed at Fingal Head. It is believed that their spirits protect the Ngarakbal Githabal people in this area from strangers…..Today, at the Tweed River, Ngarakbal Githabal people can hear the dogs bones creaking….

The two Ngarakbal Githabal gentlemen, Mr. Joe Coolham; Mebbini Tribe – Tweed Heads and Mr James Moran; Dyraaba Tribe, told their ancestral Bootheram Lore respectively……. of the Two Dogs, Burrajahee and Ineroogun…. and DHUNGURA NGARIAN which in Ngarakbal Githabal is the name of the Pelican Dancing Ground…. Bootheram Lore must never been changed…it cannot be transferred or claimed by another….for it tells the Lore of their ancestral estate, and within it, embodies traditional morals and values for the people to follow…

The first Lore is “DON’T BE GREEDY”…the story of Burrajahee and Ineroogun teaches that Lore….. To claim or steal a Lore opens it up to corruption and contamination…and, unsurprisingly, that is exactly what unfolded………..

……”As always there is a good deal more to the story. The best parts – the intrigue and maneuvering, the anguish and joy, and above all the people – are most wisely kept for late nights around a fire on Dreamtime Beach, where, well out of earshot of the defamation lawyers, a group will be sitting waiting for the snapper to bite. They will be remembering and they will be laughing, because in 1989 they all did something which they didn’t really think was possible….”…..Andrew Chalk – in regards to the Aboriginal Lands Council court case….Ash

To this date the Ngarakbal Githabal descendants have never been recognized or included in the governance of their ancestral estate by the crown systems….Their culture continues to be appropriated and twisted by those who do not understand the Bootheram and its teachings…the ignorance of the current system thrives on greed, but, the ancestral ‘djurebil’ protection of the Black Dog is indelible, and it’s been written into LAW….

If you would like to read Joe Calhum’s Bootheram of the Two Dogs – you will find it on my website at this address….and if you would like to receive more of these blogs then subscribe to my newsletter [its free] and you will automatically receive them in your email…..Hoo Roo

Aboriginal ‘SKY ANCESTORS’ and The Song of the Vine

The ‘Song of the Vine’….The Battle of Wollumbin.

ByangumAs you drive out of the regional town of Murwillumbah – 30 km from Byron Bay on the most eastern point of Australia on route to Mt Warning/Wollumbin- you cross a bridge at the junction of two rivers…. To the uninitiated of the local Aboriginal Bootheram [Dreaming], this bridge is just a blip on the map with lovely scenic vistas….but to the ancestral peoples, the Ngarakbal Githabal, this is a site of great spiritual and historical significance.

Byangum is the meeting place of the incoming [Salt] & outgoing [Fresh] waters systems, and it is here at Byangum that the river splits into the South & Main arms of the Tweed Valley Caldera and encircles and protects the central sacred complex of Wollumbin…Water is sacred to the people and has significant meaning within their ‘Skin Lore’ kinship systems. Its sacredness permeates all….It comes from the ancient Lore of the Rainbow Serpent…The Ngarakbal Githabal are descendants of the ancestral Carpet-snake clans of the Feathered Serpent Traditions of Australia…

byangum
Byangum was mapped as the original settlement for the area but was abandoned and the site of the town was moved further down river

Byangum was the natural Tidal Limit before the construction of the Bray Park weir a few kilometers down river in the 1960’s….Crown surveyor, Alan Cunningham had sailed his surveying vessel up to Byangum, in 1828 to “chart the interior in order to find a suitable fresh water site for the crown to establish a settlement”…A settlement was established and mapped for future development, but later abandoned, and the town now known as Murwillumbah was relocated and established several miles downriver.Allan Cunningham explorer

 

The Ngarakbal Githabal traditional name for the place Byangum is ‘Ngungumth’, but Byangum was the nearest the white man could get to pronouncing it…and for them, in accordance with tradition, lore and custom, this place is also the name of the tribal custodian of the djurebil [sacred site] that is located there ….and a custodian of a djurebil has important responsibilities to their site…they MUST protect it…Custodian Rights and Responsibilities are never self-professed. They are inherited thru the kinship ‘Skin’ totemic descent of the Lore, Language and Land that the djurebil is located in…This occurs throughout the continent…

As you drive across the bridge at Ngungumth [Byangum] above it is a Sphinx-like Mountain…This mountains traditional name was ‘Moolumbah’….and to the Ngarakbal and Githabal it is, traditionally, the face of a significant Buloogan or Warrior/Sage who faces to the East’, towards the rising sun…Byangum

 

Buloogan is a descriptive title. It is not the name of the Warrior Sage ….This Buloogan has several names – Burrigan or Durrigan or Durramulan are just some of ‘his’ names…. and there are other mountains named after him as he ‘walks’ through the landscape…and He has many Bootheram [Dreaming Lores] about his journeys… He teaches Lore and values to the people, and as he walks he sings, and he also carries a long vine[plant]…He is a powerful ‘Weeun’ [clever fella/spirit ancestor] his songs create and his vine makes the land….His story is an important facet of the Bootheram [Dreaming] which links to all the other ancestral Creation Spirits journeys…and in each respective country a custodian is responsible for ‘His’ djurebil in accordance with the Lore, Language and Land its located….each custodian holds the respective songs and ceremonies of the Buloogan’s journey…and together [each portion in each ‘country’ combine] to make the ‘songline’…

Buloogan travels all over the land…His name changes with every new ‘country’ he enters, with every language that fills the ancient continent of Australia…..In this portion of his many journeys He is traveling from the coast [Byron Bay-Brunswick] to Byangum, where he faces east towards the rising sky….This place is in Ngarakbal ‘country’, in the Wollumbin volcano, and then, He travels inland to the Githabal volcano…and then on- on his many journeys through the respective countries….all the while singing and teaching as he travels…He is a Culture Hero….a Sky Ancestor Hero, from the Dreamtime – Bootheram….from the Feathered Serpent Traditions

He has many mountains and planes…The land tells us his story..The land IS his story, and so too does the night sky….In the Ngarakbal portion of his journey one of his mountains was gazetted as Hatton’s Bluff by the crown – named for the Wollumbin Post Office Master, Mr. Hatton of Byangum Village in the Wollumbin Parish – the site the crown had originally selected as a suitable location to build the town of Murwillumbah, which was the nearest the white man could get to pronouncing the ancestral dialect name of Moolumbah….It’s a beautiful place in the foothills of Mount Warning/Wollumbin…. A significant location to the ancestral peoples Lore, as given to them by the Sky Ancestors….Junction of two rivers encircling the central djurebil… ‘Meeting place of the waters’…Salt and Fresh…It is also the site of a battle between Ngarakbal warriors and invading settlers…The ‘last stand’ of resistance against the guns to uphold the traditions of the ancestor, Buloogan’s ‘djurebil’ from decimation and theft by the colonial invaders.

Some Background History….

By the early 1860’s English Squatters occupied some 3,000 squares miles of the ancestral aboriginal estates from the Macpherson Ranges in the north to the Clarence River in the south…the title ‘Squatter’ is exactly as it implies – an illegal occupant [of owned property]…..They, the Squatters, took the lands by force…Guns verses Spears….Guns won, of course

Around 1862 the first selectors [prospective farmers] who were, according to the crown legally entitled to occupy and later buy freehold land whether it was being occupied by either squatters, ancestral peoples, or not, began to move into the district….so by 1862 the Ngarakbal Githabal lands were under a second wave of siege…the first had been from Moreton Bay Penal Colony days [commencing 1824] but that’s another chapter so I won’t digress…I’ll just say that was the most brutal time of the invasion…

Anyway…..Joshua Bray was a Squatter who arrived in the Ngarakbal ancestral estate in 1863. He had relocated from the Brungle Run, in Tumut, which are the ancestral lands of the Ngarigu people that had been taken by force as part of the invasion process of the crown. Tumut is approx. 1500km south of the Tweed …..

James Bray and his wife Isobella
James Bray and his wife Isobella

Joshua brought with him Native Police from the south….The standard formula of the invasion process was simple – set a black man against a black man – give him a uniform, a horse, arm him, pay him with tobacco and alcohol [the currency in those times] and give him right of access to women of the defeated…pillage and rape… an effective ‘tool’ of war against the ancestral people that has been used by the crown throughout its global career….

During the 1860’s large areas had been declared and gazetted as Forest Reserves and had been the domain of Timber getters harvesting the rare rainforest timbers for export back to England…I’m leaving out a whole chunk of information here about the penal colonies and the battles of the ancestral people to hold their lands…but, by 1887 much of the Tweed Richmond had been resumed and gazetted as the Tweed Richmond Gold Fields…now, a lot of people don’t realise that the Native Police force were also responsible for policing the gold fields throughout the east coast colonies – It goes back to the Eureka Stockade days in the Victorian Gold Fields….and as the crown wasn’t [isn’t] in the habit of keeping records, today the government still refuse to recognise any form of battle ever took place at all [which is a fallacy] ….According to the crowns accredited history books they were welcomed into the country and the ancestral people happily gave them all their lands and peaceful relocated to Reserves…mmmmm.

Joshua Bray - headshotAnyway, Joshua Bray was the first Police Magistrate in Ngarakbal ‘country’ [arriving 1863] and commander of the Native Police force – He established the Kynnumboon Post Office [whilst a ‘squatter’] – He was a Justice of the Peace, the Coroner, the Gold Mining Warden, and, after his brother James left the district for another appointment, Joshua also became the Crown Land Agent….He had guns and crown instructions…basically it was, take the Ngarakbal lands and prepare a settlement for first settler selector arrivals and then sell the land to them for the crown…and presumably, destroy all records of battles, then sit back and take his place as a founding father of the Tweed confident that His-story would look after him….

Before invasion the lush landscape of the Ngarakbal Githabal supported several thousand people in the ancestral tribes….each tribe was a family clan…and it had been their home for thousands and thousands of years…

In 1882 the newly formed Aborigines Protection Board – facilitated by the police- conducted a census of Aboriginal people in NSW…….”On the Tweed River a population of one hundred and nine Aboriginal people is stated in the Aborigines Protection Board Report – these people are divided into two classifications with 97 Aboriginal, [in subsequent census identified as ‘full-bloods’], and 12 half-castes”. [Reibe 2001:52]

The 1885-86 records of Joshua Bray’s census team show 90 adults and 52 children for Tweed & Brunswick & Grafton areas….

By 1886 The NSW Aborigines Protection Board Report shows NONE in Tweed, with only two adults at Ballina and two adults in Lismore, and a state decrease of 146 males, 63 females and 260 children…total of 469 full blood deaths in one year…..

Many epic battles had been fought between the crown invaders and the Ngarakbal between first contact and 1890 – and these are in the oral traditions still …That the crown stealthily didn’t keep the records of the slaughters is classic tactical His-story sanitisation, and by 1887 most of the surviving Ngarakbal people had been placed into the Brunswick Reserve at Byron bay – Administrated by the police under the dubious title of the Aborigines Protection Board… From this reserve the survivors were systematically relocated out of their ancestral area into Barambah settlement in SE Qld…A few remnant survivors had found survival amongst the first White settlers, and some had gainful employment as postal workers, which afforded a small level of liberty to remain in their ancestral land, and the ability to move between settlements established by the invaders…and one of those postal workers was a Ngarakbal man named Johnny Brown…

So…..Let’s review….

In 1866 James Bray left Tumut … He and his family travel to the Tweed. For his ‘special services’, as a ‘Special Constable’, James received the appointment of Crown Land Agent at the Tweed and soon afterwards was also appointed Clerk of Petty Sessions. Whilst he was building a house at Dunbible Creek [near Stokers Siding- onroute to Byangum] his family stayed at Coolamon with the Gray’s [now Murwillumbah – the relocated settlement] …Whilst still at Dunbible he selected 300 acres of land across the creek and facing the Tweed River in the name of his daughter Lucy….. As Government Land Agent he could not select in his own name…..This land was what is now Byangum, or Ngungumth, a djurebil, and traditionally the place of a significant Buloogan or Warrior/Sage who faces to the East’, towards the rising sun…who sings the landscape and carries a vine….and it was also the crowns first choice of a settlement, beneath ‘Moolumbah’…

Well…imagine how outraged any ancestral person would be about such a significant site being stolen…imagine if your property was stolen…would you fight?…well the Ngarakbal fought…as depleted as they were, with all their kin incarcerated in Reserves…the remaining small remnant in the ancestral lands rallied a resistance to hold their Lore djurebil site of the Baloogun…and as fate would have it, despite crown orders to destroy all records of battles, James Bray did have at least one recorded instance of this altercation with the ancestral Aboriginal people…

It was Sunday September 16th 1866, just a few months after Joshua Bray’s arrival in Ngarakbal lands .Chained to a tree - sunset

“Blacks away all day until late in the evening when they returned I got Bony & Jimmy to accompany me to Coolamon – to put my horses over by high tide on Monday morning. When I got over H.Clarke said my place was not safe as the Tyalgum Blacks had left their Gins up there and that meant mischief. So I had a cup of tea at half past seven p.m. and got ready to return at once accompanied by Clarke. When we got to the camp the Blacks immediately ran away & swam the river….We then made all haste to Skinners and made our way through the brush on the middle arm. We succeeded ‘Thank God’ in reaching the boat before the Blacks – made our way home to Dunbible and surprised the camp – making Wollumbin Johnny prisoner -& to our surprise discovered next morning that they had planted in the scrub in close proximity to the main camp – the following grim warriors – Jacky Bundash- Big Jimmy – Jimmy Kelly or Scrammy Kelly – Wigam – Monday – Big Billy – Dickin – Charley- [and two or three names unknown] – the names of my own Blacks who were implicated in the plot were Jacky Merrylegs – Bony- Pointer- Jimmy Crow- Jimmy or Talgemma- Bob & Wallumbin Johnny.

I kept Wallumbin chained up until Monday morning and then threatened to shoot him – he then revealed a portion of the plot, that they intended murder but it was a black to be the victim – so I let him go- tho’ I was convinced that he was telling a lie – but I had no proof against him” ….James Bray  

By 1879 there were six appointed Magistrates to operate the Police Districts of Cudgen; Murwillumbah; Tweed and Brunswick…….They were Joshua Bray, Thomas Robinson, W.Hindmarsh, George Nixon, Frank Nixon and James Pringle…….At this time the Tweed District included Byron shire

James RowlandJames Rowland, pictured, left,  with ‘his’ Aborigines was a half-brother of Joshua & James Bray. Rowland also selected his lands at Byangum on the pathway from Brunswick . He was enumerator of the Aboriginal Census for Brunswick in 1871 – The number James Rowland registered was 70 [Ngarakbal Githabal descendants] …James Bray in a letter to the Register General wrote

..”He has to take a guide [black] and go across the mountains, a great part of the distance being dense scrub through which they must cut their road…”…   he used a guide to get to Byangum, and hence the name Rowlands Creek, at UKI today, near Mt Warning on route to Byangum – The guide following an ancient pathway of the Sky Ancestor Baloogan – Burrigan, Durramulan or Durrigan, the Warrior Sage who carried a vine and taught the people Lore…pathway

Because of his resistance Johnny Brown was relocated to the Brunswick Reserve. His descendants had already been incarcerated there. Because of his crimes against the crown, they sent him north to Purga Reserve, and then on to Barambah Labour Camp in south east qld…from there he was sent east to the policed labour camps on the Sunshine Coast – 500kms from his family and his ancestral homelands…Johnny Brown – along with his enslaved kinsmen, had rallied to uphold Baloogan’s durebil against all odds…he gave this song to his surviving family….It was related by his Granddaughter, Charlotte, in the 1950,s as her part in the Civil Rights campaigns to recognize Aboriginal people as legally being human, and not Flora and Fauna as the crown had so cruelly classified aboriginal people in those times….He is singing for the loss of his djurebil…His Culture, His Land, His life

The Song of the Vine….related by Charlotte Williams [nee Brown] Gullival tribe – Ngarakbal Githabal Moiety…

“There was a vine whose spirit was a man.

These forest vines’, they were the Spirit peoples vines.

They were not made by men.

And someone cut this vine, and there this man is struggling to be alive.

This is my own grandfathers song.

“I am here”, the songs say’s…”I am this vine”…

“My life is going away from me, from this ground”                         

“This place, this dust. My ears are ringing”

“Gaungun the spirit woman is making my ears no good”

“My ears are ringing. I’ll never see this world no more”

And one man came along and saw this vine struggling to be alive. He covered it with dust. When I think of my old people, how they would sit down and sing their songs to me, I could cry…”.

Rest assured…despite the best efforts of authoritarian systems Johnny’s descendants survived and so did their Bootheram Lore, just as it has done throughout time….

If you would like more of these posts, then subscribe to my newsletter [it’s free] and you will automatically receive them in your email….Hoo Roo…..

 

Genesis of Genocide….and the art of Wrestling

Aboriginal Australians have produced some of the finest sportsmen and women in the world…what many don’t know is the part that sport played in keeping the Lore alive during the colonisation process… Forced onto Reserves by the Native Police force, the Ngarakbal warriors kept morale and Lore breathing at Brunswick Heads Reserve – Byron Bay- until it was wiped off the maps by the crown.

cape byron

The Ngarakbal / Githabal people of what is now the Byron Bay Tweed Kyogle area know a lot about the history of the colonisation of Australia…they were there….their grandparents and great grandparents were forced into created Reserves; or exterminated…Today many of the Reserves have been removed from the maps….but they haven’t been removed from the memory of the people….and the traditional art of Wrestling played an important role…
On the East Coast of Australia– New South Wales as it was all known then – the enforced Aboriginal relocation process was implemented over a period of 50 years before the crown moved to take over the west of the continent from the Dutch…..Oceania Early Discoveries

Commencing in 1848, when the Native Police force was formed, and until the late 1800’s the focus of these forces was primarily to ‘round-up’ the aboriginal population and to assist the crown in surveying and gazetting the East Coast into States [Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania] in preparation for colonisation by free settlers….at this time the western three quarters of the continent was still under Dutch rule

English had only claimed the eastern coast of Australia, so naturally,340 Native Troopers Dispersing a Camp the East Coast tribes were the most brutally hit by the invasion forces….The crown had commenced carving the country up in the 1860’s after removing the ancestral people…removal often meant extermination of entire tribes…they then began selling land to the first ‘free’ settlers at specially organised land auctions using the Crown Land Act along with each newly created state’s own legislation for the same – in New South Wales [NSW] this was the Robertson Lands Act – This paved the way for the East Coast ‘land grab’ to begin….

1880 crown lands sales2The crowns treasure vaults were filling from the sales of the ancestral estates, and the surviving original people were forced onto specifically created Reserves, Stations or Missions….Forty years later, the crown now had enough money to fund a war against Holland to take the western three quarters of the continent by force.. The Borer War was fought in Africa against the Dutch; and England won…the prize was the west Australian lands…… So now all of Australia could be remapped and renamed – no longer NEW HOLAND, it was becoming the commonwealth country of Australia, wholly held by the British….and “by 1901 as white colonialists were undergoing their rite of passage into nationhood, the original Australians were also participating in a rite of passage- but of quiet a different kind”…G. Souter .

1899 Boer war -British v dutchThis historical photo of Australian Troops training in 1899 in readiness to assist the British attempt to exert control over the Dutch in South Africa in the conflict known as the Boer War –  the political process of claiming and retaining control of Continents is dependant on maps & Geographic names and   APARTHEID processes
So, by 1901 the Aboriginal people lost all recognition for, and claim to, their own individual countries and their respective ancestral estates – by force of the crown….They were no longer known as the Ngarakbal, or the Githabal on the East Coast, or the Pinjantjatjar in the centre or the Ngarrindjerri in the south, or any of the other distinctive tribal countries that existed before invasion [ of which there were over 350 individual countries] ….Now, as part of the crowns invasion, claiming and renaming [the maps] process everyone was classified as just being Aboriginal, right across the continent – no distinctions…By 1901 the crown had successfully locked them all into Reserves, Missions and Stations and classified them as Flora and Fauna…’Operation Invasion’, complete….
On the East Coast the Native Police Forces were the initial administration body for the reserves…during this period [the first wave] the ancestral people had no option but to retreat and relocate…..if they didn’t they were terminated…..many battles were fought and many lives were lost endeavouring to hold their lands against the guns – they’d never seen guns…..yet to this day, the crown refuses to recognise that any wars were fought. Which can only be concieved a complete self-serving myopic view, as these following extracts from the governments Byron Bay Native Title reports reveal….
…”The first wave of the relocation process by the Native Police occurred in the early 1850’s ….. Documentary and oral accounts suggest the actions of the native mounted Police had a direct impact on the Aboriginal population numbers occupying the region. The Native Police were active in the area throughout the 1850’s and engaged in punitive raids”….[ Waters 1999;14 McKeown NSW-NTS 2005: 19]……………
“Oral accounts suggest further massacres occurred in the [native title] claim area at Suffolk Park, and further north at Hastings Point [Cudgera] and at Mount Warning as the Troopers returned north”…. [McKeown NSW-NTS 2005: 19 ; Reibe 1999: 97-99]

These reports are [as expected] very pro-crown; despite stacks of evidence within the Ngarakbal/Githabal Oral Lore about the epic battles with the invaders…but it challenges the crowns tenure; so it’s been quashed…..Anyway….., over time there was a second wave of administration where the Aboriginal Reserve’s management was transferred from the Native Police and taken up by church groups…..The respective faiths [churches] obtained leases to land and created the ‘Missions’ …..and some of these were so large that they were known as ‘Stations’ and they held stock belonging to the crown….It is of note too that most of the church leases were for 27 years, after which time they kicked the Aboriginal people out and sold the land for profit….

North NSW Aboriginal Reserve closuresAnyway….The first wave of the invasion administration [the Native Police] had fought the wars against the ancestral people – reducing the population numbers……Then the second wave [the churches] enforced a new religion onto the people and it was the function of this second wave to break the ancestral knowledge apart and reprogram them….Children were taken and placed into separate Mission institutions to learn to speak English and worship a foreign god in the expectation that they would forget about their ancestral lore and language….Adult survivors were sent to Station Reserves and hired out by the police administration [ ironically re-titled the Aboriginal Protections Board ]…they were used as labourers for the first settlers, denied access to their children and punished if they spoke their language or followed their lore….They were allotted numbers [for ease of administration beside their ‘new’ English names] and they could not leave the reserves unless they had authorised administrative permission from the central administration office which was then the Armidale Police extract from State Archives of Aboriginal Reserve at Brunswick - 2029

This administration process served to sever entire families who were divided and sent to different Reserves, Mission’s or Stations – to break down the ancestral culture……if anyone who was [or had been] an antagonist survived, they would be relocated multiple times…sending them further and further away from their ancestral estate area and their family – often sending them interstate 1000’s of km because the legislations were harsher in the remoter unestablished areas of the colony away from prying eyes….it was brutal heartless administrative policy…..genocide by paper – the power of the pen…
Surviving men –warriors- were targeted the most severely throughout…..The lush landscape of the East Coast was deemed ‘ perfect for colonisation’…. for the Ngarakbal/Githabal men this meant many were sent cross border into Qld to a police labour camp known as Barambah….”a dumping ground for the lame, the halt and the incorrigible….the black criminals of the state”…W J Bleakley 1913
…”since the establishment of this settlement in 1904, it has been the dumping ground for natives of all classes from all parts of the state but principally those whose removal from undesirable environments on the fringe of civilisation became necessary for disciplinary reasons…”….W J Beakley 1934….
From Barambah, any antagonists or ‘troublemakers’ who still opposed the invading process would be punished and relocated yet again….often up into Far North Queensland or across to Military Reserves on the Sunshine Coast….some survivors got moved up to eight times….further and further away from their ‘country’ and their kin… Today that same reserve, Barambah, is called Cherbourg and it’s still the largest Reserve in Queensland, but it’s got a lot of beautiful people there with a lot of culture and lore and, surprisingly, compassion ….all survivors of a very dark history and despite this they hold no grudge against the white settlers….displaying a level of forgiveness that many [white] church going citizens could only hope to aspire too.
Back in Ngarakbal/Githabal country [now gazetted as the Tweed, Byron and Kyogle shires] the small reserves began to be ‘reclaimed’ and reallocated as crown land, or sold off by the churches….they just shut them down and moved everyone off into the more centralised Missions and Stations in less desirable country …..systematically heaping more and more people from all different places into ‘controllable’ space, and further and further away from their ancestral areas and their kin…..Overcrowding, deprivation and lack of sanitation caused illness, depression and death….population numbers dwindled and no-one seemed to care….the invasion process orders were on schedule and the outcome was expected to be total genocide via assimilation, within three generations……

What many people today don’t realise is that there were lots and lots of small Reserves everywhere on the East Coast….Nor do they realise that they have been systematically removed from the maps – Sanitising the history and the evidence – Nor do they know about the important role that the sport of Wrestling played at the Reserves…but the Ngarakbal/Githabal do….their role as the keeps of the first portion of the transcontinental songline requires that they keep the historical Bootheram [Lore]…and they do………
Now, the Reserve at Tweed Heads is well known and documented…however it was also reclaimed and is now a shopping centre, hospital complex and a housing estate – it even makes a mention in the box office hit “Muriels Wedding” – where a sleazy councillor takes the reserve away to redevelop – the sub-plot for the film was based on a true story ……but, here is the one the crown tried to hide – probably due to a Native Title claim in the late 1990’s over Byron Bay
Anyway….

for the use of the Aboriginals -Brunswick VillageAt Brunswick Heads [Byron Bay] there was a small Reserve, It was the southern administration facility to the northern one at Tweed Heads… and; thankfully, despite the best efforts of the invasion process, the lore, land and language survived intact….and, how they did that is another story for another time, and its an awesome inspirational story too… I will however, tell you a bit about Charlotte Williams who was sent to the Brunswick reserve as a young woman….
Above is a close up of the Brunswick Reserve, and below is picture of the village of Brunswick, it shows the same Reserve which was wiped off the maps….this is one of the crowns own maps.  Note it has cancelled written across it….its that simple – they just cancel it and remap a new one….this happens with all their maps.1906 Mullumbimby Aboriginal reserve
Charlotte Williams [nee Brown] – Granny Charlotte as her descendants call her- was one the Ngarakbal survivors shuffled by the Administrators…She was a noted midwife, and this granted her ‘authorised’ travel permits between the Brunswick and Tweed Reserves….at that time no-one could leave the reserves unless they had written authorisation and every aboriginal person had been allocated a number – Charlotte had a number and an important purpose…into her was entrusted the Bootheram [Dreaming Lore]….. The crowns administrative policy was strict – “No number, No authorisation, No travel” – culminating in arrest and punishment if “No Paperwork” could be produced…for the Cultural Lore to survive it had to go underground…..This following extract was prepared in conjunction with the Native Title process of Byron Bay….however Charlottes descendants have never been recognised as originating from Byron Bay by the crown….the maps had been sanitised…..
“Charlotte Williams was an ‘ARAKWAL’ woman who, with her family in tow, frequently moved between the coast and the Nimbin area. For a time the Williams family lived at Middle Pocket near Mullumbimby and it has been reported that a woman known as Queen Charlotte performed domestic duties at homes between Skinners Shoot and Tyagarah in the period c.1925-30. Charlottes Williams clearly had traditional knowledge of the Byron Bay locality [e.g. the myth of the Fairy Emus and the song Wao] and a great deal of knowledge was passed on to her daughter Millie Boyd”….[Colins1990:45]

Women were the last to be relocated from the coastal Reserves  – deemed less troublesome…As a young woman Charlotte had been allowed to remain on the Brunswick Reserve in her ancestral lands but over time she was systematically relocated many times as well….Charlottes Father was a white man…[Aboriginal women were often exploited by the Administration]…  Her half Brothers had previously been sent to other Reserves….Tom [Close]was one of her half brother’s…He was sent to ‘Stony Gully’ Reserve near Nimbin and then onto Mulli Mulli Station….Charlottes Full-blood Ngarakbal warrior Grandfather – ‘Johnny Brown’- was relocated many times due to his opposition to the invasion….king Brown -WoolumbaHe eventually was sent to military Reserves located at Lake Cootharaba and Tin Can Bay near Fraser Island Queensland as punishment, but he sure gave the crown some hell before he was captured…. Also a story for another time…..Anyway, how does Wrestling come into all this???…..
Well, despite all the tragedy the Ngarakbal warriors, of which Johnny Brown was a senior Lore man, kept their spirits and their warrior skills alive whilst incarcerated at the Brunswick Reserve….and to do this [undetected] they used Sport…
The spirit of Sport is universal and it provided entertainment for the Native Police and the White Administration to watch….Among the most ancient of all sports are Wrestling and Running….Of course the warriors were denied their weapons which were traditionally used in their sport events….spear, boomerang and nulla nulla [club] throwing contests to demonstrate strength and proficiency were common before invasion… but the sport of wresting was something they could still do whilst held captive on the Reserves… it also meant they could train for combat.
So, let’s look at traditional wrestling….Now, the object of traditional wresting amongst the Ngarakbal was not to link or grip their opponent in such a way as to overpower them and make them helpless and unable to move…..It was instead the skill and agility in grappling with the opponent, to throw him to the ground clear without him holding you…..but, he could hold you as long as he could carry you….the craft taught combat skill, endurance, patience and timing
It works thus…..First there are three persons selected from the one totem tribe, and another three from another totem tribe…..for ease of explanation I will call the first group the Pelican Men and the second group the Emu men1890- byron Bay men Mitchel libraray PXA689no
This 1890 photo of Byron Bay Aboriginal Men appears in the book Time & Tide Again – Library of NSW PXA689 no.14…..
….”A clear ground, free from shrubs or rocks, is selected, a soft sandy spot. Before the contestants arrive, the members of the respective tribes congregate to witness and barrack for either side……then the men arrive, their bodies may or may not be smeared with oil and ochre…presently a person steps forward and he holds in his hand a boomerang and a small throwing nulla nulla [club]
He turns to the contestants, addressing them…” You are called upon today to uphold the honour of your tribe. One of you may win or take the prize”….and he holds before them the newly made boomerang and nulla nulla
These weapons are placed into the ground, like you would with cricket stumps/wickets at one end of the ring …..The referee then calls to the men who will defend these weapons…..[in this example] it’s the Pelican totem men who step forward…and their supporters shout encouragement…and they walk to the end of the ring that has the weapons standing upright in the ground.
The three Pelican totem men stand in front of the weapons, facing the opposing team members of the Emu totem who are standing ten to twenty metres back at the other end of the ring…..then the referee calls to the Emu totem men to take the weapons from the Pelican totem men
The first of the three Emu men walks forward towards the weapons and at half distance he is met by the first of the three Pelican men, who grapples with him to prevent him from coming closer to the weapons…..Now, let’s suppose the Emu man throws the Pelican man to the ground…He can now rush forward where he is met by the next Pelican man [number 2] who has come to defend the weapons… The Emu man now must wrestle with Pelican man -number 2…. and suppose he also throws him to the ground…. Emu man rushes on and is now met by Pelican man – number 3….and now the war begins….The third Pelican man strains every muscle to defend the prize and the honour of his tribe… he must prevent the Emu man from advancing to where the weapons are standing upright in the ground….They wrestle, both falling to the ground, and then rise….. The Emu totem man is getting nearer and nearer; he reaches out to take hold of the ‘nulla nulla’,….almost gets it, but his strength fails….He gives up and returns back to his team members with a feeling of defeat. Now… the second Emu totem man makes the attempt, but he may not have the skill or the strength to tackle the three Pelican totem defenders….but still, in honour of his tribe he will try….he also fails and must return to his team at the other end of the ring…….Now comes the third Emu totem man….instead of walking he runs and perhaps knocks the first Pelican totem defender down, then meets the second and throws him to the ground….Now he grapples with the third Pelican totem man, throws him to the ground and takes the ‘nulla nulla’ and returns to his team companions amidst cheering from his tribe….
Now they are given a rest….perhaps an hour or more.
The referee then takes the boomerang, and places it on the side of the Emu totem men….and says “Take the weapon from the Emu totem”
The first Pelican totem man goes forward and is met halfway by an Emu totem man, they begin wrestling and perhaps the Emu man lifts him and throws him upon his shoulder, and then carries him to the end of the ring back to his Pelican totem team…this means he lost – he doesn’t continue to wrestle with the others…..
So then, the second Pelican totem man also fails in the same manner…he can’t continue either….so, it’s up to the third Pelican totem man to defend his tribes honour and capture the boomerang….But he tries and also fails…..
Then the barrackers of the Emu tribe shout with joy, because the Emu totem men have won the prizes; the boomerang and the nulla nulla…
The Pelican totem men in their defeat will take it in good spirits and wave as a sign of friendship and of expressing desire to meet again in the future in a similar challenge…”….adapted from original by D. Unaipon
So…. it’s an attack and defend version of wrestling, running and endurance….and as you can see by the photo above, being placed in Reserves didn’t stop the Ngarakbal warriors from practicing their training….training for a war to defend their land…more on that later thou…..
Some of the more complex traditional games can involve up to 50 men who, using a wooden cross like object that is spun on the surface of the competition ground [moving it like a football between the teams] teaches the important skill of hunting agile game, like kangaroo, emu and wallaby….This ancestral game has also produced some of the best natural footballers in the world
Then there are other more complex gaming events that involve whole tribes gathering to compete….many of these game events will last an entire day, and some even longer….to an outsider these events appear to be war….but this is not the case…the object of these gatherings and sporting events is to solidify community ties and also serves the purpose of exchanging information that improves the skills of making boomerangs and spears…for the women it is a great opportunity to learn new weaving techniques and meet with kin…..but most importantly it was the opportunity to gather and entertain each other with the added bonus of maintaining the spirituality of the land and all it contains….
Upholding the Bootheram [Dreaming] Lore through performance, dance, song and oral tradition is one side of the lore….maintaining a living culture unbroken despite all attempts to wipe it off the map or lock it away to die in Reserves requires stamina…No…the culture never died…it adapted…Taking the best qualities of whatever it was exposed to, maintaining morale and morals, applying the lore’s of healthy competition, endurance, skill and patience…aka, the art of wrestling.

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Mapping the Bootheram – how the West was ‘won’ from the East

The Ngarakbal hold the first portion of one of the important Transcontinental Bootheram Lore’s [Dreaming]…as above so below, it is written in the stars for the Lore to travel on the land through the peoples songs, hence, Songline…… and each tribal cultural block hold their portion of the ‘song’ as It travels across the land….following the stars….ironically it was the same stars that the British followed to Australia

mt warning caldera - with Wollumbin

Lore must always be sung in sequence…..just as one cannot fully understand a play from only half way through the plot…neither can one understand the lore unless it commences at the beginning….

Land and language [dialect or linguistics] are linked…and the name of the clans who hold portions of the ‘song’ is the same name as their dialect…and as the song travels it changes dialect, passing through each ancestral clan Estate….

For the Ngarakbal their central sacred site, Mt Warning/Wollumbin has many names….it depends on the Bootheram that is being related as to which name is used

In historical Bootheram’s each timeframe, or epoch, has a Creator Being …a totem who embodies that time and place…When the Wollumbin volcano was part of the deep ocean it had the totem of the Tiger Shark – and a specific name for that creation ancestor….And as it was ‘sung’ from the waters by the ancestor spirits [skybeings/starlore] the totems change to represent the next timeframe/epoch……The totemic creator spirit changes with every epoch.

One of the ancestor creator spirits was a Turkey….and he also has a Bootheram for his own epoch…The Turkey’s name was Wollumbin…the Tweed Caldera is the best example of an erosion caldera on the planet….Wollumbin Volcano Bootheram of the Turkey and the language of that song is in Galibal dialect…The Galibal were a tribe within the Ngarakbal area…….Gallibal is the sound of a Turkey, and the name of the tribe who hold his Bootheram.

The central plug of the Caldera was named Mt Warning by Captain James Cook when he ‘discovered’ and charted the [so-called] unclaimed east coast for the crown in 1770.

Recently it has had the dual-name of Wollumbin applied and recognised by the Geographical Name Board – who control the mapping.  They incorrectly gazetted the central plug alone, instead of to the whole Volcano that Wollumbin [the creator spirit] created way back in the dreamtime. As a result of this gazettal the ancient lore has been obscured,  because Wollumbin has also been incorrectly attributed to the dialect called Bundjalung…. Administrative bungle by government?….or deliberate move to rewrite history to their advantage?

This ‘administrative bungle’ occurred because the first Police Administrators, who also managed the Aboriginal Protections Boards [which is a nice administrative way of naming slave camps] in the late 1800’s were ordered to collect the languages of the Aboriginal peoples….and they incorrectly classified an entire region of Northern New South Wales as Bundjalung….which is the name of a tribe from the Widjabil who are one of the four groups in the moiety/cultural block of the Yoocum Yoocum…and in traditional lore and custom the Bundjalung tribe [proper] has no jurisdiction over Gallibal Land, Language or Lore.

Interestingly, Bungil-lung  is also part of  the ‘Lung’ Lore – another songline which travels up from the South Gippsland of Victoria along the east coast…. I won’t cover that now but will explain that in later posts….or subscribe to my newsletter for more in-depth info.

Anyway, the original name of the cultural block that the Ngarakbal and Githabal come from was the Yoocum Yoocum….but that fact had been stealthily buried as part and parcel of the conquering and claiming of the east coast of Australia – and as we all know, rewriting history to the benefit of the conquerors is the classic pattern that has occurred all over the planet…Cultural genocide essentially…..and there have been many wars written out of the historical records…including the fact that only the east coast of Australia was claimed by the Crown, because the other four fifths had been claimed by the Dutch….and these facts have also been conveniently obliterated from the contemporary records of today since the Boer War – British v’s the Dutch – ousted the Dutch and allowed for the Crown to claim the rest of the Australian continent. As you can see on this pre- Cook map of New Holland below….the east coast had not been charted, and therefore not claimed according to Northern Hemispheres laws of tenure.New Holand map -pre British

Anyway, back to the east coast history…..

Joshua Bray, the first Tweed/Byron Shires Police Magistrate collected the Ngarakbal’s linguistic records in the late 1800’s under orders from the crown who were busy fighting the Dutch at the time….Joshua Bray is pictured below

Joshua Bray - headshot

Using the legal process of applying Aboriginal language to landscape for the use of naming geographic features was required in order to oust the Dutch who had used their own language to map the west…..So,  Aboriginal language was used to validate the crown maps and thus their legal tenure of Australia….

These Police records of Joshua Brays Ngarakbal language were submitted as evidence to alter the gazettal of the name of Mt Warning to Wollumbin in the mid 2000’s – as part of the contemporary governments Reconciliation process of dual naming significant sites – Though government was recognising the Aboriginal significance of ancestral sites it was, at the same time, stealthily changing the ancestral attributions from the original truth [lore, land and language of the Yoocum Yoocum] to the administrative records of the Police [Bundjalung]….wiping out Yoocum Yoocum completely from the Lands records….This administrative sleight of hand trick then travels all the way up to the UN, and thus, the U.N Geographical Names Board now endorse the bogus historical referencing of Bundjalung.  The ancestral names on the maps have been sanitised and the ability for Aboriginal Native Title claimants to prove pre-colonial title of their own country has been thwarted……Cultural genocide. Pretty dastardly manipulative stuff isn’t it…..and yet another verse in the ancient Starlore Bootheram of the Ngarakbal and Githabal people .

 

Transcontinental Songline begins in Ngarakbal Githabal Country

Creative journeys abound in  Aboriginal Mythology. Two cross the Australian continent & begin from ‘Cugin’ [Cudgen] in the ancestral lands of the Ngarakbal Githabal moieties….

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The following Bootheram is called the Fairy Emu Dreaming and is one of several ‘Bootherams [Dreaming Lores] about the totemic journey of the ancestor creator spirits across the land.  It was recorded from Charlotte Brown in the 1950’s…….Charlotte Brown was the Ngarakbal wife of Githabal man Euston Williams…

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The Fairy Emu Dreaming

…”….A big rock stands in the sea six miles from Byron Bay

A man named Nguthungulli made that rock. Nguthungulli is our Father.

He’s the Father of the whole world.

He’s the man we’ve got to be afraid of.

No matter what we do wrong, or where we do it, He’ll know.

 And no man has seen Him.

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“….Nguthungulli had a cave in the rock.  After he made the rock, he told the four fairy woman, ‘gilarmavell’, to stay there…”.

“….Then he went away from there and walked inland from the coast.  He traveled over the mountains with his dog Korung.  He had a walking stick, and when he put the stick into the ground He left behind a stone like a basin..”…..

…”As he traveled He left the bean-trees, and He named the different places on His journey.  He named Woodenbong [where we are now], Nguthumbung.”

“He went over the range to the head of the Condamine.  When he knelt down at the river to drink, He left his handprints there in the stone…”…….

“….Nguthungulli went away out into the desert, towards the sunset.  In our language we say that Nguthungulli is away out in the Borrgorr now that means the sea. …”…..

“…The old people knew that the sea was out there.  They knew that whichever way the butheram, the story of Nguthungalli went, it was towards the sea, Borrgorr.  You can hear the sound of the sea in that word.  They had seen then that we were on an island.”……….

“….Nguthungulli has big rocks in the Borrgorr,  the sea, where he lives today.  Out in the caves in those rocks in the sea, Nguthungulli has four daughters and one son.  And his son is called Yar Birrain…”….

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 Ngarakwal [Yoocum] Totemic Lore as told by Charlotte Williams [nee Brown] of the Ngarakwal Githabal moieties – East Coast Australia……The name Yar Birrain has several meanings , one of which is “First Light”….The summit of this sacred Mountain [known as Mt Warning] is the first land in Australia to receive the dawn rays of ‘Mother Sun’….