Tag Archives: Nganduwal

Crushing the Head of the Rainbow Serpent

Before there was a line on a map separating the Tweed, Byron and Gold Coast regions of Australia, before occupation , this area was the northern block of the original ‘Yoocum-Yoocum’ ancestral estate…some of the most coveted and prestigious real estate on the entire continent of Australia….A beautiful location, with a dark secret…

This specific east coast location was strategically chosen as the state borders of New South Wales and Queensland  by the Commonwealth forefathers to effectively ‘divide and conquer’ the Yoocum-Yoocum Aboriginal moiety through administration’– deftly eradicating their old world lore’ by drawing a line on a map where no line had ever been before ……Right through the very beginning of the Rainbow Serpent Culture of Australia…effectively crushing the head of the serpent, and creating a domino effect dispersing the Skinlore, Kinships and ‘connections-to-country’ right the way across the continent with one killer blow.

All Skinlore, Kinships and connections-to-country are derived from Origine’ Rainbow Serpent Culture, which unfurls in the heavens [above] the ancestral estates and is mirrored into each respective estates landscape [below]….. A pure unadulterated stream of culture that refreshes and revives, this same system inalienably connecting people to place through lore, land and language as old as time…

Showing connection-to-country from the celestial vault was how native title was first established by Eddie Mabo in the High Court….

Mabo spoke about the land and the stars ….the lore…revealing Malo’s lore (the law of the land) and the law of the Stars of the Tagai (the lore of the heavens) to show how his moieties tribal Skinlore, Kinships and connections to ancestral country gave his people their inalienable rights to tenure over their lands, and that they be acknowledged and returned…and they were.

However, since the success of Mabo – over-turning the law of Terra-Nullus – well, since that time, to thwart other Origine’ claimants the governance systems have employed all manner of administrative manipulations…perpetuating a  dark secret of dispossession and genocide in order for the commonwealth law to retain control in the land down-under.

History has been sanitised – books written, reports published and films funded promoting the ‘sanitised commonwealth history’….. Geospatial evidence- cadastral land maps [which get utilised in the native title court process] have been altered – mountains have been renamed, place names have been wrongfully attributed to appropriated linguistics, and revealing anthropological reports edited……

All and any pro-Rainbow Serpent Culture collated pre and post colonisation has been targeted and ‘buried’;  and apical ancestors and their traditional songs have been allowed to be procured by ‘strangers’ and corporations with no honouring of ancestral rites of passage….Adulterated documents  are being utilised in court processes endorsed by autocratic administration to extinguish native title of the continents first peoples.

beginning of the Queensland , New South Wales state borders – Coolangatta Tweed Heads – gazetted  through sacred serpent sites

It’s shocking, witnessing the methodical eradication of the matristic Rainbow Serpent Culture – Equally shocking is the autocratic enforcement of a contemporary Bundjalung migration story about a ‘climate catastrophe’ – the Three Brothers – replacing Rainbow Serpent prehistoric lore……A despotic governance blatantly using people from out-of-country to administrate these contemporary fables and sign off on extinguishment agreements.

Genocide and Apartheid [by pen] – in 2018 in Australia…..

But how can this be?

Easy!…Utilise administration to sanitise history just like every other invasion and occupation before……and hope that no-one will remember in a few generations.

Reversing Mabo’s legal legacy of federal native title rights and recognition they started to amend, amend, amend….slicing and dicing the newly ratified FEDERAL Native Title laws into malleable  STATE native title acts and regulations which bear no credence to Mabo’s trailblazing efforts……

These butchered State Native Title Acts create an impenetrable ‘wall”; operated by state native title services bodies that purportedly ‘provide legal aid’ to native title applicants [complements of the very same commonwealth the applicants are taking to court]…… no conflict of interest there…HA!…

Having spent decades and millions creating a most gruesome bureaucratic beast in native title, alongside a secret and even more sinister monster – State Aboriginal Lands Council law – Now all Australians are being secretly repressed. The country sold out.

But how can this be?

Easy….! Create an alternative legislative pathway.

Local Aboriginal Lands Councils [LALCs] have been given the same power as Municipal Shire Councils, but they are NOT representative of blood-line to country Traditional Owners…This is because any Origine’ person from anywhere in Australia can move to a new state or shire area and join the lands council there…they don’t have to be from that area originally, and once a member they can vote on outcomes affecting the new area……just as anyone else who  moves into a new shire becomes part of that municipal shire and is able to vote….there is absolutely no blood-line descent of the ancestral tribe required for membership to either shire council system….but, only Aboriginal people can join an LALC.

NSW Lands Dept map – showing the original Mount Wollumbin location BEFORE Geographical Names Board alteration , to claim Mount Warning exclusively as Bundjalung Nation 

Local Aboriginal Lands Councils [LALCs] AGM’s are won by individuals whose family can get the most members at the meeting…… This allows larger family groups in the community to guide how the LALC makes decision and the outcomes of that area. …..Take a drive in your local land council boundary and having a look who is better off may surprise you……. Generally, it seems that traditional owners, native title claimants and native title holders who live in those LALC boundaries are worse off…….The system pits native title claimants AGAINST LALC members….classic apartheid processes 

Of course the bureaucrats don’t actually let the Origine’ peoples [actually] control their aboriginal lands councils….When they need a specific outcome they [historically] sack everyone, claiming them incompetent, and put bureaucrat administrators in place …then they amend, amend, amend, the LALC’s legal acts and regulations so they can transfer thousands of crown and public properties into the LALC coffers ready to do lands deals and ILUAs – Indigenous Land Use Agreement

So ‘abracadabra’, a covert system that serves as an alternative legislative pathway to launder [the Australian people’s public lands and resources]; a system which has no onus for disclosure to the public magically appears…..it is Australia’s Hidden Apartheid – and it effectively dispossesses EVERYONE ……. except the bureaucrats….. And it achieves all this whilst simultaneously facilitating extinguishment of native title……

It’s utterly, brilliant diabolical genius …and truly mindboggling that individuals could have turned their minds and skills to crafting such [legal] instruments of mass destruction….knowingly eradicating what is arguably the oldest continuously surviving matristic law on the planet and replacing it with a relatively new biblical doctrine – all to validate colonial occupation.

A documented example of this type of stylised genocidal bureaucracy occurred in Yoocum-Yoocum lands south of the Gold Coast border….it might seem simply a government commissioned report being deliberately ignored….and what’s new about that?…but the consequences are reverberating  across time.

Anthropological materials commissioned and submitted to the Federal Court by the New South Wales Native Title Services in relation to the Byron Bay Bundjalung People [NTDA# NG6010/98 [NC95/01] & #3 N6020/01 [NC01/08] by Dr Frank McKeown of McKeown Ygoa & associates – in his report McKeown quotes Archibald Metson.

Archibald Metson

Archibald Metson was a colonial administrator and ethnologist from the late 1800’s.  In 1894 he was commissioned to investigate the conditions of Aboriginals in the newly gazetted state of Queensland; despite his consequent proposals, only some of his ideas were embodied in the Aboriginal Protection and Restrictions of the Sale of Opium Act 1897……. And I should point out that Mr Meston was also the Southern Protector of Aboriginals for the state of Queensland from 1898 to 1903,…..and equally important,  Metson had spent his childhood in the region , growing up on a farm in the upper Clarence and visited the Tweed Byron area , including in 1870 and 1880 when he travelled through the region on foot and on horseback …But the point is that Archibald Metson , over a 30 year period,  recorded that the aboriginal population of the area spoke a dialect of the language called Yoocum-Yoocum, which he had learnt as a child while growing up in the Clarence 

The Extract from page 21 of the McKeown Report [Bannister 1984, Metson 1880, 1923: McKeown 2005] created for New South Wales Native Title Services and provide to the federal court states;

“I spoke the Yoocum-Yoocum dialect which extended from the Logan River South to midway between the Clarence and Bellinger River, and all New England from Armidale to near Warwick, whence it was joined by the Wacca-Wacca of the Darling Downs, the dialect which came down the north side of the Brisbane River to the sea and Toorbul Point and down the Burnett to the sea at Bundaberg”..Metson 1923

“All the Tribes from Nerang to the Clarence spoke variations of the great “Yoocum-Yoocum” dialect [Yoocumbah], which went west to New England and down the head of the Condamine at Warwick, where it joined the Wacca-Wacca of the Darling Downs”….Metson 1894 

Then ; Page’s 87-98 of the McKeown report [which you must remember was submitted as evidence to the Australian Federal Court by the New South Wales Native Title Services in relation to the Byron Bay Bundjalung People] also quotes Anthologist Radcliffe-Brown [1918,1929A, 1929B,1930] who refers to these same people as the Yukum or Yukumbil

“This large tribe, named in its negative [yukum=no] occupying the region of the Richmond and Clarence Rivers in the north of NSW and extending over the Qld Border.  Their country extends about 100 miles north and south and about 80- miles east and west.  Within the north there are considerable local differences in dialect, and a number of the sub-tribes are recognised.  The sub-tribe about which I have the most information is the Kidjabal [Githabul] of the country at the head of the Clarence River”…Radcliffe Brown 1929A:400

McKeown notes in his report that Radcliffe-Browns publications and unpublished field notes deal primarily with Githabul groups in the upper Clarence around Woodenbong, and mentions only in passing the “Minyanbal” sub-tribe [Radcliffe-Brown 1930:238]….. In his field notes there appears only one reference to Byron Bay, but it is unclear to what he is referring.  On the same page, he notes the presence of a “mob of Minyangbal at Tweed Heads”, and immediately below wrote “Ngarabal from Tweed Heads to Brunswick” McKeown 2005 : 89…….

This clear [and way to truthful] anthropological report was commission by the government department who were assisting the federal court to determine a decision – and it was not ‘helpful’ to creating the ‘required’ extinguishment of native title in Byron Bay at all – so, it was ignored.

All applicants who were identifying as ancestral Yoocum-Yoocum subtribes, like Ngarakbal were targeted and ostracised, and almost immediately the exclusive endorsement of Bundjalung as being the [endorsed] language commenced…..

Yoocum-Yoocum Rainbow Serpent Lore was quashed and the Bundjalung Nation myth unfurled…

But why?

To ensure the tenure of Australia remained with the Commonwealth and no land was actually returned to the Origine moieties, the bureaucracy’s concept of a ‘Bundjalung Nation’s’ legal authenticity needed to be accepted in the courts

But how would they do this?…

Easy!… by garnering the assistance of Local Aboriginal Lands Councils, whom anyone that identifies as aboriginal  can join; and enlisting community history and museum volunteers to provide ‘research ‘from [non-academic] government endorsed sources such as newspaper clippings; and then begin  subtlety  ‘tweaking’ the language attributions [acknowledgements] of local Geographical place names records to align with newly collated and created Bundjalung Nation language dictionaries…All funded by the state …….and hey presto – qualify that all [legal] lands records data and place names were homogenised [and reclassified] as being from Bundjalung Nation linguistics…….Wiping out all original tribal attributions from the geospatial records and creating an unfair advantage that ensured extinguishment of native title….

Geytenbeek 1971 – dialect map- Ian Fox 2003

Re-writing History – a tried and true method to validate occupation.

An extract from the introduction of the Margaret Sharpe Dictionary of Western Bundjalung, including Gidhabal and Tabulam Bundjalung, has been cited extensively to alter geographical place names and homogenise original individual dialect attributions in both Queensland and New South Wales …this one dictionary effectively altering Lands records data collated by numerous academics over a span of 90 years.

The extract in the Introduction of the dictionary states …….“Dialects of the language referred to by linguists as Bandjalang [or as spelt in English Bunjalung] were spoken in an area including the Northern Rivers area of NSW, the Gold Coast, north to the southern suburbs of Brisbane, and west to Warrick and Allora”

So, put simply what does all this mean?…..

The genocide of the Rainbow Serpent Culture and its replacement with a post-flood migration story to achieve extinguishment of native title.

Altering the geographical data, or lands records, language attributions was key to obstructing Federal Court Native Title Claims…..Significantly  because the original geographical place names attributions had been recorded in each original [individual] tribal dialect of each area when first surveyed in the 1880’s……

Ironically, those individual dialect records were precisely the legal evidence Origine’ owners required to achieve a positive determination of Native Title…..

GNB dual naming of mt Warning as Bundjalung
2006 Letter from the Geographical Names Board – the NSW State Government had gazetted the wrong mountain as Wollumbin and changed the original linguistic attribution to Bundjalung . Altering Lands Records to enact genocide – by pen  

By allowing naive volunteers to make metadata submissions for geographical name changes of significant landscape features to State departments, which then became endorsed, gazetted and recorded by State government in the parliamentary Hansard and lands records files, protected the government from [actual] involvement –  but the outcome was to achieve the desired effect – dispossess ancestral moieties,  pervert the natural course of justice, and  facilitates State government ILUAs which culminates in the  extinguishment of federal native title …….

But, how these are altered Lands Records used in native title?

Well, the first national park in Australia to be created under an Indigenous Land Use Agreement (ILUA) with the traditional owners, the Byron Bay Bundjalung, as joint managers with the National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) occurred in Yoocum-Yoocum ancestral lands in 2001 – State government created the brand  ‘new’ Arakwal National Park and the Bundjalung myth allowed state government to   extinguish Native Title and award a development ILUA to the Byron Bay Bundjalung Corporation…the first agreement of its kind in Australia, it worked so successfully this same process has swept across Australia.


Now, Ancestral Truth is being ignored again….the Government is trying to assimilate the whole of the Gold Coast region into this same created Bundjalung Nation…….the dark secrets spreading….

Margaret Sharpes dictionary introduction states …….“Dialects of the language referred to by linguists as Bandjalang [or as spelt in English Bunjalung] were spoken in an area including the Northern Rivers area of NSW, the Gold Coast, north to the southern suburbs of Brisbane, and west to Warrick and Allora”


The modus operandi?……. crush the head of the [Rainbow] Serpent by leaving  no ‘flicker’ of the Yoocum-Yoocum Cultural block  to smoulder….. in fact, since the Byron Bay ILUA was signed in 2001 a veritable wildfire, spreading this [created] contemporary administration propaganda ‘marketed’ to the world as the Bundjalung ‘Nation’, has exploded into a bonfire fed by the bureaucrats……with the Byron Bay ILUA 2 and the Ti-Tree Lake ILUA 3 signed in 2006- all without including the descendants of the apical Ngarakbal ancestors who’s traditional cultural and intellectual copyright they appropriated without consent…..

Lorraine Mafi- Williams protector of ancestral women’s Rainbow Serpent Lore was targeted and ostracised due to the systematic injustices created by the government systems

The sole goal of State Native Tile is to extinguish the inalienable rights of ancestral moieties ….and anyone who [stupidly] engages is legally extinguished and so too are all descendants of the people they claim to be representing……so, if a total stranger appropriates your great great grandparents culture and endorses it [to be changed] and then files a native title claim over your moieties ancestral country, well, whether you like it or not, your inalienable right is automatically extinguished too….

Today, the Yoocum-Yoocum bloodline are still being lied to, cheated, dispossessed and exploited….the bureaucracy is knowingly homogenising all of the ancestral culture in line with an ‘endorsed’ three brother migration story….

The Three Brothers is an appropriated Yoocum-Yoocum tribal migration story of arrival of another race in their lands after a great flood, and which [it’s no surprise] endorses the ‘biblical tenure’ of the great southern land just as the biblical story of the three sons of Noah was utilised to validate tenure, and extinguish inalienable rights over the tribal lands of Africa, Asia and pagan Europe in the medieval past…..

Seems that ‘old- style’ genocide by papal pen worked so well that’s its good enough for the federal courts of Australia now….


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Guyoongun Bootheram – Star Lore

The Ngarakbal Githabal are part of the Yoocum Yoocum moiety from the most eastern point on the Australian continent…..and Guyoongun Bootheram means Star-Lore in Ngarakbal Githabal language…..

milkyway 2

This is a small film extract from a lecture I gave at the Science-Art Research Centre in Uki, Northern New South Wales…..it was 2007…. during José Argüelles [Mayan Prophecies]  tour of Australia…..I was given permission by the Elders of the Ngarakbal Githabal to present their lore on their ancestral country…it was a great honour and a big responsibility…..it was also my very first lecture to a large crowd whilst being filmed…….I was very nervous…… many of the senior Elders were in attendance, including Elders from Central America, South America, Canada and New Zealand….as well as Jose, and  a myriad of enlightened and learned souls…This is only about 10 minutes out of the 75 minute film….just the beginning…..Hope you enjoy it

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The Metaphor of the Feathered Serpents in Ngarakbal Githabal Country

There is a global mythology of Feathered Serpents throughout ancient tribal nations….and as the last great continent to be invaded, Australia’s original people hold the least corrupted of the ancestral lore….The most eastern extremity of the Australian Continent is the ancestral country of the Ngarakbal Githabal people, who refer to themselves as “Bird Tribes”…Their ancient traditional Lores and Customs are a rich repository of metaphoric lore of creation…..
Feathered Dinosaurs - Bird Ancestors
Feathered Dinosaurs – Bird Ancestors

The Ngarakbal Githabal people are direct descendants of the ancient Carpet-snake clans – “Bird Tribes”, or Feathered Serpent Traditions…..

Their totems and ceremonies bear witness to true and factual evolutionary creation sequences,and their lores and traditions travel through the landscape, climbing four ancient volcano’s, into the bordering ancestral lands of the Wakka Wakka peoples of the Bunya Mountains.

The oldest known Australian marsupial fossils are from a  55 million year old, Early Eocene site at Murgon in southern Queensland, in the Bunya Mountains volcano lands of the Wakka Wakka people.   This site has produced a range of marsupial fossils, many with strong South American connections…..and South America also has a rich mythology of Feathered Serpents.

In 1987 the Murgon site also produced an isolated tooth that is thought to from a condylarth, which has been named Tingamarra porterorum…….Condylarths are an ancient group of placental mammals know from various other regions of the world, and the presence of Tingamarra in Australia indicates that placentals were indeed present there at the time when the continent broke away from Antarctica.  The world’s oldest fossil bat was also found at the Murgon site…..Very old marsupial fossils have been found on other continents, most notably, North America and Asia.Palaeontology

The Bootheram [Dreaming Lore] of the Ngarakbal Githabal says that “the first bird flew from the Bunya Mountains”……and that Bird was the “Kirra”….the White Cockatoo….There is a coastal beach village on the New South Wales Queensland border, in Ngakakbal Githabal country…and if you follow the ridge from Kirra beach, all the way up the Macpherson Ranges and continue following it up and up, you come to the Bunya Mountains volcano, where all the ancestral totems are being uncovered from the ancient Gondwanan landscape…….right where the ancestral Bootheram Lore has always know them to be.

Here’s a short clip that explain’s a little more of the Feathered Serpent Lore of the Ngarakbal Githabal peoples…..the Bird Tribes of Australia…..enjoy

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The Black Dog Spirit of Fingal – Aboriginal Lore of East Coast Australia

The Ngarakbal Githabal are the ancestral aboriginal people of the most easterly land on the Australian continent….a landscape protected by their ancestral spirits…one such spirit is ‘Ineroogun’ – the Black Dog of Fingal Heads….arial fingal

The ‘accepted history’ books tell us that the Tweed / Gold Coast environs were established by the colonialists in the mid 1840’s…. this is a sanitised pro-crown ‘His’-storical view…..

The first Cedar getters [wood cutters] were claimed to have arrived by boat in 1844…commencing the indiscriminate ‘clear fell’ denuding of the Gondwana Super Forest from the Brunswick River, just North of Byron Bay and throughout the Tweed Caldera…However the oral traditions of the Ngarakbal Githabal indigenous Aboriginal people tell of this lands invasion beginning well before the 1830’s…The first white skinned invaders they say also arrived by sail boat…. but contrary to the contemporary history presented by government,  the traditional Aboriginal people – the Ngarakbal Githabal- tell of a prior arrival of the Spanish in the 1500’s coming to Byron Bay and Fingal Heads…All pre-crown arrival has been eradicated from the authorised historical records… a prior arrival in Australia would nullify the Crowns claim of Terra Nullus as unoccupied lands….and this is not a popular political option…

portret_W_Blaeu-280x300Anyway, over one hundred years after the Portuguese-Spanish arrived, the first Dutchman to get to Australia was Willem Janszoon aka Jansz in 1606…… Not much is known about his early years, other than he was born in 1570, but what we do know is that he served the Dutch East India Company (VOC), which was a chartered company established in 1602 to carry out colonial activities in Asia…….  In 1603, he became captain of the Duyfken, which means ‘Little Dove’, and it was aboard this ship that he first sighted Australia while searching for outlets of trade near New Guinea…… Once he crossed the Arafura Sea, he travelled west and landed on the western coast of Cape York just near Weipa…possibly, following charts that had been captured from the Spanish

Jansz-mapJansz started to chart the area, thinking that the land was still New Guinea, but after finding nothing but swampy land and violent encounters with Aborigines, he decided to throw in the towel and return to Indonesia…..He called ‘his’ new found land ‘Nieu Zeland’, but the name didn’t stick and was used by Abel Tasman about 40 years later for New Zealand…which is located off the eastern coast of Australia.mmmmm……..Now, Aboriginal Elders are insistent that two Spanish landings took place in the ancestral coastal lands of the Ngarakbal Githabal people, on the east coast of Australia…One at Byron Bay and another at Fingal Heads…..Both are purported to be Spanish Shipwrecks which occurred at Suffolk Park south of Byron Bay, and on Cook Island, situated just off Fingal Headland

Fingal Headland is a beautiful place…its known as “Mynjung Booning”……… “Mynjung”, which is the Ngarakbal Githabal word for ‘place of’;  and “Booning”, which means Echidna …Place of the Echidna…… Fingal’s precise location is Latitude -28.199042, Longitude 153.571315fingal

Separating the Tweed River from the Pacific Ocean, Fingal is a narrow peninsula several kilometres long. It ends at the mouth of the Tweed river and on the opposite bank lies Queensland. . The peninsula north of Fingal village is known as Letitia Spit, a sand spit that has been slowly accreting due mainly to the construction of the river’s southern training wall – from rock quarried from Fingal

Aboriginal associations stretch well back into the dreamtime with anthropologists claiming that the area supported one of the densest nomadic populations to occur anywhere in the world. Skeletal remains of people estimated to have been around seven feet tall have been found on the Peninsula….

In contemporary times Fingal has been referenced as “Pooning”…most notably in the crowns geospatial lands records  for LAW, Land and Language are linked…..and the ancestral people understand that for its the same in traditional Lore – Lore,  Land and Language are linked – but,  the crown chooses to only recognise the name ”P[b]ooning”  for Fingal….[the ‘P’ and ‘B’ sounds blurr together  when enunciated…]…..

echidna2P[b]ooning” is the Ngarakbal Githabal name for the Echidna, or Australian porcupine…and the word P[b]ooning is attributed to Fingal Headland because of the rock formations that occur on the headland…. Spectacular basalt columns that resemble the spines of an echidna, and, the ancestral Ngarakbal Githabal people believe that the spirit of the echidna inhabits these headlands…Burleigh Heads located to the north also has similar formations and is also traditionally referred to as being a “Mynjung” [Place of] “P[b]ooning” to the Ngarakbal Githabal…and several other sites that this rock formation occurs in are too.fingal causeway by G Shlatter  (1)

Anyway……There used to be a large cave at Fingal, but it was blown up to form the break-walls of the Tweed River ….. For the Ngarakbal Githabal the cave site is the ‘dreaming home’ of a protective [supernatural] hairy man said to abide in that cave on Fingal Head and also a giant black dog whose story is linked to the creation of the McPherson Range…but the crown chooses NOT to recognise these ancestral Lores or that the Ngarakbal Githabal totemic ancestral name for Fingal is ‘Inneroogun’ – the Black Dog…..said to now roam the area, homeless….since the Cave was destroyed

fingal causeway by G Shlatter  (2)The columnar basalt lava flow at Fingal Headland extends underwater to Cook Island (named after Lieutenant James Cook who explored the east coast of Australia in 1770)…… The lava is thought to have come from the prehistoric Tweed Volcano and is known as “Lismore Basalt”; predominantly tholeiitic with occasional alkaline types…….. This unit is stratigraphically equivalent to the Beechmount Basalt in Queensland – west of the Lamington Plateau….which is also refered to by the Ngarakbal Githabal as being a “Mynjung” [Place of] “P[b]ooning”……

Now,…I need to include all this historical and geological stuff in order to explain how the Ngarakbal Githabal Bootheram Lore, Land and Language are linked, to geospatial lands records….and thus, land tenure.

The jointing, clearly evident at Fingal Head is caused by contraction: as lava cools from the outside toward the centre, shrinkage cracks develop, usually forming hexagonal patterns (the shape of the columns is attributed to tensional stress). These columns are vertical because the lava cools from top to bottom when the flow of lava is horizontal

Just before the turn of the century, the Department of Public Works blasted and quarried the massive basalt caves of Fingal Head….and in the process they desecrated the ‘djuribil’ [sacred site] of the Ngarakbal Githabal……. During the1950’s and 60’s sand miners cleared and destroyed not only most of the littoral rainforest which blanketed Letitia Spit but also numerous burial sites, including at least one of the former massacre sites.

All of this destruction occurred during the crown occupation process when the ancestral peoples were being systematically relocated to policed reserves…moving them further and further from their ancestral lands….and due to their legal status as being Flora and Fauna up until the success of the Civil Rights ratification in1967, the blood-line to country descendants of the ancestral people of Fingal have remained dispossessed….however, their Bootheram [Dreaming] Lore survived and was even used to save the Fingal area from massive development…which I’m getting too…

Fingal has historically been coveted as a beachside development site since early occupation but has always managed to remain protected…This protection was largely because of the Ngarakbal Githabal Aboriginal recording the totemic significance of the area and having their language embedded into the geospatial lands records by the crowns first Surveyor’s under order of the old Queen, Victoria.. …Lore Land and Language are linked, so the surveyors used Ngarakbal Githabal language on the original maps…..but, since the advent of Native Title in Australia, the crown is none too happy that the ancestral dialects of the ancestral people are on the geospatial records [the maps]…seemingly because the language attribution [of Ngarakbal Githabal] is the evidentiary material required to claim Native Title ….so, it’s much simpler for them to reclassify it to Bundjalung…change the language classification changes the tenure….it’s an old formula applied globally….

Anyway…back to Fingal…..Throughout the seventies the residential community of Fingal continued to make land claims over Letitia Spit despite the fact that they had no legislative basis on which to rely….. None of these claims were successful [ the residential community not being of the ancestral bloodline of Ngarakbal Githabal country]…Then, after the introduction of the Aboriginal Land Rights Act in 1983, the residential community linked together with other local groups to form the Tweed Byron Local Aboriginal Land Council and immediately lodged new claims over the Spit as well as other pieces of Crown land at Fingal……as a government entity the Aboriginal Lands Council were able to circumvent the non-bloodline prerequisite – write new laws that enabled development …So, In 1986, the Aboriginal lands Council and the Department of Lands negotiated ‘a deal’ in respect of the Spit……The residential community agreed to withdraw all but a small portion of their original claim in return for the Department instituting a Plan of Management over the remainder, aimed at ensuring the land’s protection for future public use….To their credit, the Local Aboriginal Land Council went to some expense in preparing its submission on the Plan of Management…… However, once the claim was withdrawn the Department refused to proceed, and instead commenced researching potential development options…..Of note is that over the subsequent decades several fresh land claims have been made, and like the initial claims,  none of which have included the Ngarakbal Githabal…and;  subsequently, none of the claims were successful…..since then, the geospatial records linguistic attributions have seemingly been stealthily and steadily changed to Bundjalung….

Developers, Ocean Blue Club Resorts Pty. Ltd., posed the first big threat to Fingal They negotiated ‘a deal’ with ‘the department’….planned to build an international hotel on an important dreaming site and remnant littoral rainforest, a luxury marina on a protected wetland area, and a 400 townhouse /condominium complex in place of the existing village. Both the hotel and marina site were Crown Land and zoned as either public open space or for environmental protection….. At the same time, the Public Works Department commenced a feasibility study into the possibility of cutting a new entrance to the Tweed River through Letitia Spit to make a “Super Harbour”…. If approved, the Department intended to pay for the construction work by selling the remainder of the Spit to private developers…… One firm, Adco Constructions Pty Ltd expressed interest in acquiring the land and put forward proposals for around one billion dollars’ worth of tourist and residential developments….. Such intensive development was considered necessary to absorb the sixty million dollar cost of river works.

In order to prevent development of their ancestral djurebil [sacred site] the Aboriginal Lands Council contacted the Ngarakbal Githabal knowledge holders for help…they needed the ancestral Bootheram Lore to save Fingal…..

Now;….The first pro-aboriginal recordings of the Aboriginal significance of the area were made in 1950’s by Mildred Norledge from Kyogle – endorsed by Professor Elkin…She recorded the Ngarakbal Githabal Bootheram from Elders such as Mr James Morgan; Dyraaba Tribe – west of Lamington Plateau…and Mr. Joe Coolhum; Mebbini Tribe – Tweed Heads…These two gentlemen had spoken about their ancestral custodial Lore as their intrinsic contribution to the Civil Rights Campaigns to free their people from the crowns ‘non-human’ status…..They are two more of the Ngarakbal Githabal ancestor Heroes who showed the crown, through their Bootheram, that they did indeed have their own cultural ‘religion, and did not deserve to be legally classified as Flora and Fauna…

The next wave of recordings commenced in the late 1970’s by Anthropologist Howard Creamer for the National Parks and Wildlife Service Aboriginal Site Survey Team…Howard was instructed to identify ancestral knowledge holders within the community…one of the Cultural Elders whom he interviewed was Mrs Milli Boyd of Woodenbong, who was the daughter of Mrs Charlotte Williams [nee Brown] as part of the governments Aboriginal Site Survey Team of National Parks and Wildlife Services…….This information was then used to obtain further interviews of Mrs Milli Boyd [nee Williams]….principally Dr. Margaret Gummow [building upon the work of Anthropologist, Howard Creamer and Linguist, Margaret Sharpe]….This cultural evidence was then used by the Tweed Byron Aboriginal Lands Council to launch legal action, and a subsequent corruption investigation, in regards development at Fingal Heads…

And these are the cases in which the Ngarakbal Githabal ancestral cultural information was used….Tweed Byron Local Aboriginal Land Council v The Minister Administering the Crown Lands (Consolidation) Act and the Western Lands Act & Ors [1990] NSWLEC 67 (19 June 1990)…and TWEED BYRON LOCAL ABORIGINAL LAND COUNCIL v. THE MINISTER ADMINISTERING THE CROWN LANDS ACT [1995] NSWLEC 220 (14 December 1995)…… “By Notice of Motion filed in Court on 23 October 1995, the Tweed Shire Council seeks to be joined in pending Class 3 proceedings involving a number of land claims made by the Applicant pursuant to the Aboriginal Lands Rights Act 1983 (the Act) at various times between 4 January 1988 and 27 March 1992, in respect of various parcels of land having an aggregated area of some 300 hectares situate on the coast line at Fingal in the Shire of Tweed near the New South Wales-Queensland border”…..

……“The Independent Commission against Corruption [ICAC] has yet to release its report and has so far made no findings, but the evidence presented to it has graced the front pages of the metropolitan newspapers for months. Evidence before ICAC revealed that Ocean Blue had paid large secret donations to both the Labor and National parties at times when, as the respective Governments of the day, they were considering Ocean Blue’s application for Crown land at Fingal. The Administrator of the Tweed Byron Local Aboriginal Land Council alleged that an officer of Ocean Blue had attempted to bribe him into furthering the company’s interests. Lawyers from the Department of Lands claimed that they were misled in leasing the quarry site to the wrong company and both Wal Murray and Ian Causley declared that, had they known what they do now about Ocean Blue, they would have refused to deal with them. Whether or not the Ministers were in fact aware of the donation is an issue on which the ICAC has still to make a finding”….Andrew Chalk

And it was the Ngarakbal Githabal ancestral cultural information which won the case…..and Lore was recorded in LAW….

…..“To my knowledge, there are four recordings of this [Mt Warning] song in existence, all performed by Boyd. The first was recorded by Howard Creamer of the NPWS as part of a project concerning aboriginal site protection. I recorded the second performance in 1985 in relation to my PhD research on Bundjalung and Gidabal songs [Gummow 1992]. The Linguist Margaret Sharpe recorded the third performance in 1989 in connection with a project funded by Aboriginal Legal Aid concerning the environmental impact of land and land rights at Fingal Head. The Fourth was recorded on video in the early 1980’s by Lorraine Mafi Williams. In an attempt to preserve traditional material, Mafi-Williams produced the film Eelarmarni [sic] in 1988, which featured Boyd explaining some of the mythology and singing several songs from the area.”…[Gummow;1985;7A   Barwick-Marett-Tuntill 1995:121-131; Tweed Byron Aboriginal lands Council v Tweed Shire Council v the Minister for Crown Lands; and the ICAC INVESTIGATION into North Coast Land Development ]

The following information is based on recordings made in 1989 by Sharpe, speaking with Mrs Milli Boyd [nee Williams] who had learnt the Ngarakbal Githabal Bootheram Lore’s from her Elders… It comprises part of the mythology of the area [Sharpe 1989].

Mount Warning is the shape of a Turkey’s head, and according to Aboriginal people in the area a spirit being called Wollumbin, a wild turkey, lives inside the mountain. Wollumbin owned two dogs, one male and one female, which are associated with Mount Warning and Fingal Head…..One day the dogs were chasing a kangaroo along a ridge. They chased him from Fingal Heads over to Boonah near Beaudesert in Queensland. They eventually came to water and the dogs drank than lay on the bank. Two young girls from a nearby camp came to get water, saw the dogs, and went back to the camp to bring more people down to the river. After spearing the two dogs, they put them on a pole and began cooking them over a fire…….Wollumbin had followed the dogs and knew they had been killed. He flew down onto the flat where the dogs were being cooked and caused a wild storm. The people left to find shelter from the storm. Wollumbin took the dogs off the fire, wrapped them in bark and carried them back to Mount Warning. As he flew across the country, parts of the dogs’ bodies dropped onto the ground below and formed part of the landscape. He went back to Mt Warning and placed the dog’s bones in the water. One dog was placed in the Tweed River near Mt Warning and the other was placed at Fingal Head. It is believed that their spirits protect the Ngarakbal Githabal people in this area from strangers…..Today, at the Tweed River, Ngarakbal Githabal people can hear the dogs bones creaking….

The two Ngarakbal Githabal gentlemen, Mr. Joe Coolham; Mebbini Tribe – Tweed Heads and Mr James Moran; Dyraaba Tribe, told their ancestral Bootheram Lore respectively……. of the Two Dogs, Burrajahee and Ineroogun…. and DHUNGURA NGARIAN which in Ngarakbal Githabal is the name of the Pelican Dancing Ground…. Bootheram Lore must never been changed…it cannot be transferred or claimed by another….for it tells the Lore of their ancestral estate, and within it, embodies traditional morals and values for the people to follow…

The first Lore is “DON’T BE GREEDY”…the story of Burrajahee and Ineroogun teaches that Lore….. To claim or steal a Lore opens it up to corruption and contamination…and, unsurprisingly, that is exactly what unfolded………..

……”As always there is a good deal more to the story. The best parts – the intrigue and maneuvering, the anguish and joy, and above all the people – are most wisely kept for late nights around a fire on Dreamtime Beach, where, well out of earshot of the defamation lawyers, a group will be sitting waiting for the snapper to bite. They will be remembering and they will be laughing, because in 1989 they all did something which they didn’t really think was possible….”…..Andrew Chalk – in regards to the Aboriginal Lands Council court case….Ash

To this date the Ngarakbal Githabal descendants have never been recognized or included in the governance of their ancestral estate by the crown systems….Their culture continues to be appropriated and twisted by those who do not understand the Bootheram and its teachings…the ignorance of the current system thrives on greed, but, the ancestral ‘djurebil’ protection of the Black Dog is indelible, and it’s been written into LAW….

If you would like to read Joe Calhum’s Bootheram of the Two Dogs – you will find it on my website at this address….and if you would like to receive more of these blogs then subscribe to my newsletter [its free] and you will automatically receive them in your email…..Hoo Roo

Aboriginal Spiral Lore- Ngarakbal Githabal East Coast Australia

Time itself is like a spiral…..For the Ngarakbal Githabal people of eastern Australia, Spirals have an important meaning in their Dreaming Lore , which they call Bootheram – It comes  from their ancestors; the Carpet-snake clans of the Feathered Serpent Traditions….and, their ancestral land itself is a gigantic geological spiral formation…an erosion caldera…dreamtime to machinetime

The Tweed caldera’s southerly point commences at Byron Bay and then arcs in a sweeping series of mountain ranges to its northern point, Currumbin, on the Gold Coast ….The Caldera has a series of inner rings, which spiral in to the central peak of Wollumbin…. mt warning caldera - with WollumbinThe Ngarakbal Githabal are the ancestral tribal peoples of this area….They have many Bootheram’s [Dreaming Lore] of their beautiful landscape and its history….In Aboriginal culture, Lore, Land and Language are connected….and the Bootheram must NEVER be changed…that is the LAW – Lore..

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERABogangar, or Cabarita Beach is a coastal village of the Tweed Coast….The most prominent geological feature at Bogangar is its rugged Headland which has the geographical name of Norries Headland…Bogangar is the halfway point between Currumbin [on the southern Gold Coast] and Byron Bay, the most easterly point of the Australian mainland…..

The Ngarakbal Githabal ancestral name for Byron Bay is “Coorumbah”, and the northern point is Currumbin……Coorumbah – Currumbin… [Positive – Negative] …the village of Bogangar is halfway between them….

Bogangar has the largest coastal Lake in the Northern Rivers area….Cudgen Lake….fed from sea at Cudgen Headland, Kingscliff, 7km to the north along the beach….and Cudgen is Ngarakbal for ‘red ochre’ which occurs on the coastal ridges at Duranbah behind Kingscliff village

Now, Bogangar was the name of a little “hairy man”….a ‘Nimbinje’…These ancestral beings are prominent throughout the Bootheram Lore – they are from the Carpet-snake clans – from the Feathered Serpent Traditions of ancient Australia…Alcheringa…..In the distant past the ancestral people were Hairy…Now, this is by no means unusual, because ice-ages affect evolutionary changes and being Hairy in an ice-age is a very good thing… and the name of the ancestral tribe [family] at Bogangar were the “Bogangaree”……for Lore, Language and Land are linked, always…..

The Ngarakbal Githabal did not come to this land, they were always here…the Carpet-snake Clans were made here by the ancestors…In Lore the landscape and the sky are the storyboard or living library of all events….written into the landscape in ancestral language, in plain view for all to see, for all time….

As custodians of the land the Ngarakbal Githabal Bootheram ‘sings’ the story of their [specific] ancestral estate….Traditional Lore and Custom is that no-one else can sing in their lands….that is ancestral Lore for every ancestral ‘country’ all over the Australian continent – and for a very good reason…….It ensures that the Lore [of each specific ancestral estate] remains intact, unpolluted, uncorrupted and unchanged….each ancestral estate holds their specific portion of the song of their own land in their own language…and these ‘songs’ hold the survival knowledge of specific places throughout time…

In traditional Lore and Culture, someone from some other area can-not come into the ancestral estate of another tribal territory and ‘sing’ their story…Culturally if this happens the perpetrator is referred to as being “out of country”….It is perceived as very disrespectful – breaking Lore….for to sing “out of country” in a language foreign to the ancestral ‘djurebil’ [sacred site] potentially corrupts or contaminates the harmonic Lore of the Land…and this potential corruption threatens the survival of all.

solstice08-Double Spiral
recreation of the spiral stones on Cabarita Beach

“…At Norries Headland, on the sand dunes that connect the rocky headland to the mainland is an exposed midden consisting largely of “cart-rut” shells [Dicathais orbita]. A few kilometres north of Norries Head there was a stone arrangement on sandy ground in the rainforest, the stones being arranged in a spiral pattern about three metres in diameter. This report of the stone arrangement came from a man who worked on a sand-mining dredge, who collected the stones before the dredge moved over the site. Inland from Kingscliff is a ridge of red soil on which the village of Cudgen stands, the word Cudgen meaning red. According to report in 1900 “there is a hill at this place where the blacks get the red raddle or pigment to paint themselves when going fighting” …Steele – Aboriginal Pathways- page 48

Another, or perhaps the same, spiral of stones was reported to also have been found at Tyagarah just north of Byron Bay…as the story goes, these too, were found by a sand miner in 1965 and taken back to his home in Kingscliff…He then gave them to the Tweed Historical Society who networked with the Brunswick Progress Association and the stones were finally placed at the Brunswick Valley Heritage Park in 1989.

The convener of the Brunswick Valley Heritage Park was visited by Elders who told him the story of the spiral stones…This small extract was published in the Echo Newspaper in 1990……“In the dreamtime the north coast was populated by an ancestral people who owned the land….The Yowies…legendary mountain people in the style of the Yeti or Bigfoot came down from the mountains and drove the people off their land and dispersed them far and wide…..A male and female member of the people gathered them together again and then drove out the Yowies, regained their land and the sacred red ochre at a sacred site…. The stones are the spirals of the two people”……

Picture34You see, this all comes spiralling back to the Ngarakbal Githabal ‘Eelamarni’ Marriage Lore – from the Carpet-snake clans of the Feathered Serpent Traditions of Australia….which pre-dates the Three Brothers Lore thousands and thousands of years….The Three Brothers is the Bootheram of migrations into Ngarakbal Githabal lands that occurred after the last glacial maximum, when the ice melted and the sea levels rose…about 12,000 years ago – The Three Brothers migrated to the east coast of Australia with their families….landing at Yamba on the Clarence River….Now, the Ngarakbal Githabal were already here….and they call the Three Brothers “Paigal”, which loosely translated means human …The “Paigal” were cannibals….and there was a war at Nimbin Rocks …., you’ll find information about that in my past posts….But, the ancestral Carpet-snake Clans, well, they go way back…way, way, way, back…..and, explaining that, well,  that’s for another post

Anyway…. Here is another of the Ngarakbal Githabal Heroes…Mr Tom Close, relating the Eelamarni…from the ancestral Feathered Serpent Skin Lore.….Mr Close told this Bootheram in the 1950’s as part of the Civil Rights campaigns to recognise Aboriginal Peoples Human Rights…. Mr Tom Close was the half-brother of Charlotte Williams [nee Brown]…..’Beereen’ is the ancestral Ngarakbal name of Kingscliff, Cudgen Heads…

Mr Tom Close
Mr Tom Close

…”….In the Dreamtime there lived a young girl who was very beautiful. Her people were the Beereen tribe. At the time when this girl lived upon the earth there was a great war, for the Githerbul people were fighting against the Beereen people.

While the tribesmen were fighting the girl saw a handsome young Githerbul man who was a valiant warrior and tall in stature. She knew in her heart that she loved him, even though she had never seen him before. She longed that she might come to know him.

When the fighting between the Githerbul people and the Beereen people ended, a corroboree was held. When it was over the handsome young man returned to his uncle, for he lived with him in a mountain called Meeyanin.

The young girl of the Beereen tribe saw the footprints of the young man and knew by their appearance that he had gone from her sight.

Her heart bade her set forth to seek the man she loved

Wherever the young man’s footprints led, there she walked. She had with her some bark of the boorlum or ti-tree, and on this bark she rested at night. Wherever the young girl lay down a ti-tree grew and to this day these trees can still be seen…’…..Tom Close – Ngarakbal Githabal

 Here is Charlotte Williams version of the same Lore…also recorded in the 1950’s

DAWNTIME…when all creation was created – there were also people of the Spirit World made. Now the name of the Good Spirit people is Wooyun. They are a kind of fairy people. You may behold these people for they look like ordinary mortals, but they are only seen for a little while…..

Wooyung 1889
Wooyung 1889

It happened that one day the fairy people were traveling down to Coogen Heads and with them was a lovely young fairy girl. Now this girl had been promised in marriage to a young man brave as he was handsome, for he was in charge of a Bora Ring – the sacred Ring – to where all young men must go for the initiation Ceremony so that they may be proclaimed men of their tribe. For a man to be placed in charge of a Bora Ring he must indeed be a good man, so all the people of the tribe many know that he is worthy to be placed in charge of the SACRED BORA Ring.

When the time had come that the young fairy woman had reached womanhood she thought of the man, the young man to whom she had been given in marriage when a child. The dawn had kissed many days and the stars had kissed many nights since she had seen him last. Then one day she saw him in at Coogen Heads – she knew he was the man to whom she was promised in marriage – for her heart told her so.

When the battle had been fought at Coogen Heads, the young man went to his home at Meeahan, which is the name by which Crown Mountain was known to the tribe of the young man. So the fairy woman set forth to seek her lover – she came to Meehaan, and the people of there told her “yes! the young man whom you seek and who will be your husband came home but is gone again”..So she set forth on her journey of seeking her husband, carrying with her the bark of the Ti-tree, she had brought with her from Coogen Heads….. Charlotte Williams [nee Brown] – Ngarakbal Githabal

And a contemporary rendition of the same Marriage Lore – prepared for the Department of Environment and Conservation in May 2006

…..Leo was a Balugan who was staying with his old uncle Miyarni. He would look after his uncle who was an old clever fella…….The Balugan said: “I’m going to have to leave you for a while. I am going over to the coast. I want to go down to the tribal battle”…the Uncle said “ don’t leave me on my own.” But Leo insisted he had to go.

The next morning the Balugan woke up early to leave. He told the uncle that there was plenty of gwiyam [possum] and honey and away he went. He went over towards the cost, camping on the way. The coast was where the fight was, it was lasting four days. There was a Guangun there where they were having the gunarra [fight]. A Guangun is a very attractive presentable woman with all the attributes of being beautiful. That Guangun saw the Balugan and she saw that he was handsome. She was feeling in her heart that she wanted to be with the Balugan……..She was a Ngarakwal woman and her name was Kumbarra…”…..

Today the site of the spiral stones  “north of Norries Headland”  is known as Casuarina Estate Kingscliff….The spiral stones ‘djurebil’ [sacred site] commemorated the end of the wars between the Ngarakbal and the Githabal….it celebrates LOVE and respect…..and its linked to the stars….but that’s another Bootheram

“The spiral is a spiritualized circle…In the spiral form, the circle, uncoiled, has ceased to be vicious; it has been set free”…Vladimir Nabokov…..

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We ALL come from the Bird Tribes

“We are the Bird Tribes…We did not ‘come’ here, we were always here…we were ‘made ’here”. …Marlene Boyd    IMG_1066642208575158

Women are rarely mentioned in the Anthropological literature as owners of country in their own right or as decision making individuals; they appear as wives and mothers, their relationship to the Bootheram always mediated through another….but this is not always Traditional Lore way…

Millie Boyd was an exception to European patriarchal thinking, and so was her Mother Charlotte Williams [nee. Brown] because they maintained their ancestral lore traditions after invasion and in spite of European Authorities

I was very blessed to have known and worked with the late Mrs. Marlene Boyd….Charlotte Williams was her Grandmother…..Marlene was an amazing being. She loved her country – Ngarakbal country, the beautiful Tweed Caldera…..She told me about her Grandmother’s Bootheram, the Fairy Emu Dreaming….It’s a ‘traveling’ Bootheram – the transcontinental songline –  which commences in the Ngarakbal ancestral estate – first place to feel the dawn light of Mother Sun…..It tells the ‘Dreaming Lore’ of one of the Ngarakbal and Githabals supreme creation ancestor ‘Nguthungalli’ who walks towards the west creating the geological features of the landscape as he travels…..He ‘sings’ everything into existence…..


…”….A big rock stands in the sea six miles from Byron Bay

A man named Nguthungulli made that rock. Nguthungulli is our Father. He’s the Father of the whole world. He’s the man we’ve got to be afraid of. No matter what we do wrong, or where we do it, He’ll know. And no man has seen Him…”……Extract form the Fairy Emu Dreaming by Charlotte Williams [Brown]

Marlene Boyd spent a lot of time insisting to me that her people were always ‘here’……..”We did not come here, we were always here…We were made in the west….We are the bird tribes” she would state emphatically……and then she would ‘sing’….

The Boyd and Williams’s families and their relations are survivors of the crown invasion – post colonisation of Terrra Nullius….Australia – Ancient Island of the Bird Tribes which Marlene said was the origin of all the tribes upon the planet….

The whole Ngarakbal and Githabal community is extremely proud of who they are and what they represent….and deservedly so, for the Ngarakbal and Githabal descendants have always been involved at the ‘coalface’ of indigenous political, environmental and, indeed, scientific developments heaped upon then by government and the crown…..

But their association to this land is much, much older than when Capt. Cook sailed past Cape Byron and first sketched ‘Wollumbin’ and named it Mt Warning for the Crown to ‘claim’ Cooks Sketch Mt Warning 1770

on Tuesday the 15th of May 1770…..For their association goes way, back……into the Dreaming, which they call Bootheram…..way, way, way, back…..

.”The Bootheram is one continuous moment STRETCHED – across time and space”, Marlene told me…..”It’s made in the mountains. It’s made in the water….They can take our land, but they will never take our Bootheram”, she would say……She was a proudly Traditional Lore Woman from a very long line of the same, and even though we would be sitting in my beach shack [which had become the Ngarakbal/Nganduwal Aboriginal ‘office’], when she spoke her Lore, she meant business, and  the spirit of her ancestors came through her loud and clear……

Marlene was very ‘strong’ about who she was and who the Ngarakbal and Githabal are, and of their place within the ancestral tribes of this ancient continent, of which she insisted had always been ‘here’….…

“We are the Bird Tribes….We did not ‘come’ here, we were always here….We were ‘made’ here….”…when she said this she wasn’t just refereeing to Aboriginal Australians, no, she meant the global peoples – from “the time before time – way, way, way, back”….and she wasn’t the only one saying this either….

“They say we have been here 60,000 years. But it is much longer. We have been here since the time before time began … All other peoples of the world come from us.” ……Aboriginal Elder: Page 122 – “Voices of the First Day”

Marlene’s ancestors had been extensively studied by the scientific academics since colonial times and a great raft of research has been collated specifically about these families….one of those academic studies shows the blood sampling that was taken of her grandparents and great grandparents by the government of the early 1900’s….

Now, the Ngarakbal ancestral women’s ‘Skin Lore’ is Biological Genetics in Native Science….the basis of ‘Skin Lore’ determines ‘right way’ marriages, but is by no means limited to just that…like all Lore it has multi dimension facets and layers of meaning……It’s important to remember that an isolated island nation, like Australia, needed to be mindful of avoiding inter-relation marriages that could weaken the genetic strength and health of its people….and so the ‘Skin Lores’ govern that strictly…..it’s matrilineal descent recorded in totem of bloodline descent – through Grandmothers….much like MitochondrialDNA [MtDNA]…

Marlene was adamant that contemporary science was wrong….that, “the Aboriginal people didn’t walk out of Africa” and that it was actually the other way around…She insisted that the ‘Skin Lore’ would show that…..So, she got me to research the science and then we started lobbying government to use MtDNA in Native Title…The by-product of all this Science v’s ‘Skin lore’ was that she showed me, that what she was insisting appeared to be quiet valid….

The research found that in the last 20 years major advances had been made in the study of blood samples, and, interestingly, they directly challenge any supposed African link to Australia’s ancestral people, and dramatically extend the purported 60,000 years of occupation by ancestral tribes to a FAR, FAR GREATER timescale…this had occurred because of advances in cellular and molecular biology – genetics and their origins….To date, even the scientists who first established the “Out of Africa” theory have readdressed their own work and now concede that Australia appears to be the birthplace of ALL modern human beings….

Most notable of these scientists is Rebecca L. Cann, who is currently Professor in the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa…. Cann was the geneticist who made a scientific breakthrough on mitochondrial DNA variation and evolution in humans, popularly called ‘Mitochondrial Eve’….. Her initial discovery and theory was that all living humans are genetically descended from a single African mother who lived <200,000 years ago….this became the foundation of the Out of Africa theory, which she assisted in developing whilst  a doctoral student under the supervision of Dr. Alan Wilson, the then Professor of Biochemistry at the University of California, Berkeley……  Wilson was a pioneer in the use of molecular approaches to understanding evolutionary change and reconstruct phylogenies, and a revolutionary contributor to the study of human evolution…..They had checked all the facts and they were sure that they were right…but they weren’t……

After graduating from Berkeley, Cann continued her mtDNA research.  She has since stated that…..“Mitochondrial DNA puts the origin of Homo sapiens much further back and indicates that the Australian Aboriginals arose over 400,000 years ago from two distinct lineages, far earlier than any other racial type.”…..….and further, that……….“The Aboriginal racial group has a much higher rate of mutations than any other racial group, which suggests that the Aboriginals split off from the common ancestor about 400,000 years ago. By the same theory, the Mongoloid originated about 100,000 years ago, and the Negroid and Caucasians about 40,000 years ago.”….
And Professor Cann was not alone in these findings either…Her ‘new’ research led Wilson to visit Australia in 1985 and he too has had to reformulate his previous theory of “Out of Africa”…more and more eminent scientist then added to the ‘picture’ of our global human origins

Roy Simmons of the Commonwealth Serum Laboratory states, “Australian data indicated that the Aborigines actually evolved earlier than the African Negroes. There was no blood evidence to indicate the African Negroes had any connection to the Australian Aborigines.”…..

Professor Lanarch of Sydney University concurred with Simmon’s insistence the Australian Aboriginals stand alone. “We therefore have no hesitation in omitting the Negritos as the ancestors of the Australian Aborigines.” ….

Cann and Simmons, along with a growing number of academics have now concluded that Aboriginal people are far more genetically diverse than any other population….according to Cann, 10 times more than Africans….

Added to the scientific findings was the voice of Keith Windshuttle, an Australian writer and historian [authored The Fabrication of Aboriginal History, etc]……Windshuttle stated that “fifty years of blood genetic research has failed to provide any clue to Aboriginal origins”…and elaborated with “May I state here and now that our extensive blood surveys conducted in Australia, Indonesia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia, produced no genetic evidence that the Negro even entered the Pacific.”

It seemed that everything Marlene was telling me from the Bootheram was the truth…”Forget everything they taught you Stella and begin again with the Lore”, she told me…it was blind leap of faith to begin with, but over time the Bootheram always turns up trumps……

One day I’d asked Marlene, why would the government academics collude to keep this amazing information so secretive?…..Was it because of maintaining land tenure?…..Was it to thwart Native Title recognition of Traditional Ownership pre-crown?… Could this whole ‘Out of Africa’ concept be part of a global government ideology to maintain tenure and control of the global sovereign lands…and could this be why they change the maps and the original geospatial linguistic attributions of the names on those maps?….Marlene smiled……”Now you’re getting it girl” she said……….

What a wise old woman….


I’ll post the full Fairy Emu Dreaming [in full] in the future, and the Song of Wao – that accompanies it … as only extracts appear on this site at the moment…will also post some of the lobby documents in the future too….so, if you’re interested subscribe to my newsletter so you’ll get them…and check out Sean O’Shea – Byron Bay Artist…..some of his beautiful photo’s feature in my posts…just click on his website is in my links…..Hoo Roo

Traditional Ownership of Ancestral Aboriginal Lore

In Traditional Aboriginal Lore and in accordance with current Cultural and Intellectual Copyright [moral rights],  Traditional Owners [Aboriginal People] are owners of land, and through it owners of songs, ceremonies and designs associated with that land, primarily by virtue of descent in a clan or estate group associated with a particular Tribal Estate.

Mt Lindsay – ‘Julgunboong’ significant sacred site of the Githabal

Attributes such as place of conception and birth also have implications in relation to Traditional rights of ‘ownership’.  In all groups there is ownership of land, sites, ritual, stories, paintings, music, designs and so on; A set of attributes which are linked together…which comprise the Tribal Estate

There are clear distinctions with ownership of land by clans or estate groups, with mainly religious and symbolic significance, and use of land by bands, which has economic significance.

The Ngarakbal and Githabal own specific spiritual area’s,  or djuribil which are  extremely important to the individual and family who are ‘responsible’ for that area.  This principal  is fundamental to ones sense of identity, spirituality , and well being…This is a foundation truth associated with all the Traditional lore’s and customs of all the Marriage clans….

The djuribil sites have ‘clear’ owners, the djuribil are there for their individual use and protection.  Furthermore, it is dangerous for a person to go near another family’s djuribil without permission…or to reproduce Totemic Design, Song or Lore

Important fundamental connections and obligations to and for specific sites is stated by the  Githabul in the reports prepared by HLA-Envirosciences for the Dept of Environment & Heritage  for the Cultural Significance assessment for the Githabul  Native Title determination applications and subsequent transfer of the National Park properties in 2007

Charlotte Page -NNTT

All land is sacred to Githabul people but there are places that are extra special.  There are powerful places like jurbihl sites…Jurbihl sites were created by the buthara [sic] people.  They are spirit ancestors of the Githabul people.  They taught us how to look after our country.  They were real people but they transformed themselves into djaru’s,  jali, springs and mountains…..informant B 2001:4

[HLA-Envirosciences Pty Ltd – for the Dept of Environment & Heritage May 2006] 

And Further:

Jurbihl could be an area, tree, rock or animal that belongs to that area. They’re clever.  They can make you sick or they can protect you.  You can call on them. They can be used for things.  These jurbihl are part of who we are.  You can take something from your jurbihl and keep it with you.  But you can only do that with your own jurbihl…”…Informant D 2001:5

..”…People should only talk about their own jurbihl, but only if they want to…We know those jurbihl are always there. They do not show themselves to everyone..”…Informant E 2001:5

…”…These sites are precious. It is part of who we are.  We need to look after these places…it would cause a great deal of harm to /Githabul people if those places were disrespected or interfered with..”…Informant D 2002:7

Githabul people have areas that are special for particular families.  They may have their jurbihl there.  There is jurbihl for our family.  Other families have their own places.  We inherit responsibilities and obligations to our country as well as it belonging to us in a physical way…Informant C 2002:3

…”…Marrying a Githabul person does not make that person Githabul.  They are of course accepted as one of the family and one of the community.  But they just would not be able to speak for Githabul people or about Githabul things…”….Informant C 2002:3

[HLA-Envirosciences Pty Ltd – for the Dept of Environment & Heritage May 2006]


Transcontinental Skin Lore commences in Ngarakbal Githabal Country

The ‘Kidjabal’ or Githabul ‘Skin’ are the traditional cultural marriage clan of the Ngarakbal…This ancient ancestral lore begins with Landscape Creator Spirit journeys, starting from the Tweed Coast and traveling across the continent,  linking to all the ancestral countries of this vast ancient continent…each cultural block holds the lore within its own ancestral landscape and does not encroach beyond the territorial boundaries of another tribal country .


There are several important Song lines ‘holding’ the Dreaming of ancestral creator journeys commencing from the most eastern most point of the Tweed Caldera, in Ngarakbal lands ….This oral [linguistic] Bootheram [Dreaming lore] links the ancestral names of natural features [places].  The right names  has profound meaning to the ancestral Aboriginal people because Bootheram is ‘sung’ [linguistically]…. Thus Spiritual Lore is dependant on the faithful maintenance of the original linguistics of the local area…. Lore, Land and Language are LINKED by and through the Bootheram [Dreaming] and must never be changed.

The ancestral Ngarakbal creators sites and the traditional lore’s and customs which govern these, all sit within the landscape of the Wollumbin Volcano; and the Githabal’s creator sites, along with their traditional lore’s and customs sit within their ancestral lands of the Main Range/Focal Peak Volcano….these two tribal volcano’s lore’s are linked by the ancestral beings traveling journey of creation …and this same system of totemic site and skin association is repeated throughout the Yoocum Yoocum and in turn flows out across the vast Australia continent…..its perfect native biological science…..but more on that later

Whatever happened to the ‘Yoocum Yoocum’ ?


The Githabal and Ngarakwal [Nganduwal] are part of the ‘Yoocum Yoocum’ Moiety


The East Coast ‘Keepers’of the Feathered Serpent / Rainbow Serpent Traditions of the ancient ‘Bird Tribes’ of Australia…

The ancestral lands of these people are located in some of the most beautiful [and expensive] real estate in the entire country…..from north of the famous Surfer Paradise to south of Byron Bay….it really is nothing short of a miracle that the traditional totemic culture and lore of these ancient tribes survived the relentless invasion of crown colonialists. But survive [and thrive] they did…Its an amazing story of keeping the embers of an ancient fire alive despite blatant attempts to extinguish it forever. But more on that subject later. Right now here is some of what past experts have recorded about the Ngarakwal Githabal people and how they fit into the ‘cultural block’ of the most eastern moiety of this ancient land

One has to remember that the ancestral peoples didn’t write their language, and it wasn’t until the first studies by post-colonial anthropologists and academics that the original oral traditions became text. Translations were based on a somewhat myopic perspective of the conquerors and most of the information was collected from surviving tribal peoples who were either enslaved or incarcerated in those times. 

Anthropologist Radcliffe-Brown refers to this same cultural bloc as the Yukum or Yukumbil tribe;

Kidjabal was Radcliffe Browns way of recording the tribal dialect of Githabal….many and various versions of spellings occur throughout the records….here is what he had to say about the Githabal and Ngarakbal peoples…..

“This large tribe, named in it’s negative [yukum = No] occupying the region of the Richmond and Clarence Rivers in the north of NSW and extending over the Qld Border. Their country extends about 100 miles north and south and about 80 miles east and west.  Within the north there are considerable local differences of dialect, and a number of the sub-tribes are recognised.  The sub-tribe about which I have most information is the Kidjabal of the country at the head of the Clarence River “…Radcliffe Brown 1929A:400

Archilbald Metson

And then there was Archilbald Metson. He was, at one point in his career, the administrator of the Aboriginal Protection Board. This was a Police/Crown administrated board that  governed all the Aboriginal Missions and Labour farms…..    metson

“All the Tribes from Nerang to the Clarence spoke variations of the great “Yoocum-Yoocum” dialect [Yoocumbah],  which went west to New England and down to the head of the Condamine at Warwick,  where it joined the Wacca-Wacca of the Darling Downs”…Metson 1894

The “Yoocum-Yoocum dialect which extended from the Logan River south to midway between the Clarence and the Belinger River, and all New England from Armidale to near Warwick, whence it was joined by the Wacca-Wacca of the Darling Downs,  the dialect which came down the north side of the Brisbane River to the sea and Toorbul Point and down the Burnett to the sea at Bundaberg”..Metson 1923

 “On Nerang Creek at that time [1869-70] was a Tweed river blackfellow called Tulaman, afterwards killed in a myall row where bad rum played a leading part in the programme….Tullman was my sole companion in a ten days’ tour on the MacPherson Range. He belonged to the Brunswick “Minyahgo-Wallo”, who extended from the Nerang to the “Amburra” blacks on the Richmond and the “Wadjie Wadjie” tribe of the Clarence”..Metson


And then there was the Rev. Hugh Livingstone, a Presbyterian minister who resided in the Richmond District for Ten years between 1876 and 1886 [Rowland et al 2001]  In 1892 Livingstone published a paper entitled

‘A short grammar and vocabulary of the dialect spoken by the Minyug [Minyung] people on the North East Coast of NSW’.  The contents of this paper are generally well known, and have been extensively quoted and cited in the literature [ see for example Sharpe 1985,  Steels 1983, Crowley 1978].  According to Livingstone, the people occupying the Byron-Brunswick area spoke ‘Minyug’,  [that is the people who say minyug for what?],  one of a number of dialects of an unnamed language that was spoken over a large area from the Clarence River in NSW to the Albert River in Qld [Mckeown2007;  Curr1877]

It is Noteworthy that Livingstone despite having resided in the Richmond area for 10 years does not identify the greater dialect area as being attributable to a group known as BUNDJALUNG…..nor does Radcliffe Brown…..nor does Metson……..So, What happened to the ‘Yoocum Yoocum”?????

Well, thankfully, the surviving descendants of the Yoocum Yoocum are alive and well…despite governance attempts to eradicate their ancient lore and culture from existence…but every day is still a struggle to survive intact in the corporate structure that deems any pre-crown native tenure to the lands as an obstacle they could do without

TODAY corporate governance HAS ALTERED ANCESTRAL LORE TO CLAIM and promote NORTHERN NSW AS BEING the ‘BUNDJALUNG NATION’,  apparently [blatantly] eliminating all reference to early ethno-historical and anthropological data thus causing extensive damage to true Aboriginal Culture, Lore,  Religious & Ritual practicesAcademic fraud [ or collusion] can be identified when scrutiny of academic research timelines reveals that all the ‘confusion’ about which ancestral tribal peoples belong to which ancestral tribal land is occuring AFTER the Lands Rights legislations were created and Native Title was first achieved in Australia, both of which give Traditional Owners the ability to claim un-used  crown lands .

A clear pattern of the same manipulation of the early ethohistorical and anthropological data exists the throughout the country.

It appears to many in the public that government [MOU] contracted universities,  academics & local historical societies who have known access to the unadulterated early ethno-historical and linguistic materials and even carry them in their collections,  have either omitted them completely or have not correctly cited that earlier data,  and are instead altering their reports in apparent empathy of governances Private Asset development Agendas, such as Crown Lands [Report No54/01 Jan 2008 –Local Gov Private Partnerships & Asset Development]

Further; the collusion appears to have a dual function of the Academic and Historical facilities altered data  ensuring them Government favour & funding for facilities,  by enact dispossession of ancestral moieties from their traditional lands [crown lands and waters] that governance wishes to profiteer from….contractual formats shifts governments duty of care to protect STATE and Archival records integrity  by transferring data creation [and subsequent legal obligations & repercussions]  outside of  the Government departments…..but more on that later

Butheram Guyoomgan – Story of the Stars

The Githabul and its marriage clan the Ngarakbal have an ancient history which is told through their Butheram (stories) and yaribirri (songs) that connect people with their country through pathways and song lines.


This is a lovely story about the flame of traditional culture reigniting in a strong positive manner despite the invasion and dispersal attempts of the colonisation processes

For full story click HERE..