Yar Birrain is the most significant sacred site of the Ngarakbul people…the Ngarakbul are the marriage clan of the Githabul
“I want to share with you a creation Bootheram about Mount Warning which the Ngarakbul call Yar Birrain ….this sacred mountain was made by Nguthungulli, their name for God… This Bootheram Lore was related by Charlotte Williams to Roland Robinson who was a poet, writer and collector of Australian Aboriginal myths….it was published in the 1950’s as part of the civil rights movement”
“Euston William’s was the Githabul husband of Charlotte Brown…..Charlotte was from the Tweed Volcano where Yar Birrain is the centrepiece of the Ngarakbul ancestral estate……Charlotte was the daughter of Mary, which is common name for a full blood woman, and Mary’s djurebil is Biorgini – that’s Blue Knob – near Nimbin.”…..
“Mary had four daughters and three sons ……Charlotte was just one of her daughters …but all were born into a war-torn Origine’ society grappling to survive in an occupied area humanitarian, political or religious protection ” ……
” The old elders had no choice but to share the sacred knowledge to all of the survivors , in order for it to withstand the invasion process of assimilation by the British”
“This is how Charlotte Brown inherited the custodianship of Yar Birrain Lore from her Grandfather King Brown of Wollumbin who was the keeper of the first Origine’ Lore of this continent – King Brown was initially incarcerated in the Aboriginal Reserve at Brunswick Heads – reserve number 14606- which was controlled by the Aboriginal Native Police many of whom has been brought up from Tumut Brungle with first invasion squatters.
King Brown defied the occupying authorities on several occasions and as punishment was relocated to the hard labour timber camps of South East Queensland were he was worked until he died”
“His daughter Charlotte had six Ngarakbul siblings…….three sisters and three brothers who are also inheritors of the Lore “……..
“We are the Bird Tribes ….we didn’t come here , we were made here, by Nguthungulli – he is the creator, is what Charlottes grand-daughter told me ”
“She told me that way back in the Dreamtime the birds had flown from Mount Brown on the Richmond Range in Githabul country to claim the prehistorical landscape from the ancient goanna beings…..the birds gave us our language, songlines, territories and pathways“…..
“Mount Brown is where all the birds got together and spoke their language…. They was talking Gullyval, Muli, Gidabal, and this giant prehistoric bird came up and frightened them…….Parrot flew down there to Evans Head, that’s how there came to be the Bandjalang tribe…… And the wounded parrot flew back near Lismore and then out to Casino….. you can see a gully there, and they reckon the waters blood red, where he settled…….. And Turkey flew here, to Yar-Birrain wounded”……
“Turkey flew east from Mount Brown to Mount Warning and he stood right on the point and he was wounded on the head with a spear…That’s why Yar -Birran has that crooked bend in his neck……and Turkey claimed the territory for the Ngarakbul“……
Roland Robinson was a good friend of Charlotte and Euston, and he was instrumental in assisting the Origine’ people with the civil rights movement of the 1950’s and 60’s….he published the Bootheram in many of his books….
Charlotte sang her peoples lore for Roland Robinson, the Ngarakbul ‘portion’ of the transcontinental song line of Australia…She sang the creation lore of her inherited ancestral country and it’s central significant/sacred Mountain – Yar Birrain becauseof the civil rights campaign of the 1950 and 60’s ……to prove to the occupying British that the origine people had their own religion and deserved to be legally classified as human beings …… And so , on behalf of her people she sang a most sacred lore. It is called the Fairy Emu Dreaming and it goes like this”………
…”….A big rock stands in the sea six miles from Byron Bay
A man named Nguthungulli made that rock. Nguthungulli is our Father. He’s the Father of the whole world. He’s the man we’ve got to be afraid of. No matter what we do wrong, or where we do it, He’ll know. And no man has seen Him…”……
“….Nguthungulli had a cave in the rock. After he made the rock, he told the four fairy woman, ‘gilarmavell’, to stay there…”.
“….Then he went away from there and walked inland from the coast. He traveled over the mountains with his dog Korung. He had a walking stick, and when he put the stick into the ground He left behind a stone like a basin..”…..
…”As he traveled He left the bean-trees, and He named the different places on His journey. He named Woodenbong [where we are now], Nguthumbung.”
“He went over the range to the head of the Condamine. When he knelt down at the river to drink, He left his handprints there in the stone…”…….
“….Nguthungulli went away out into the desert, towards the sunset. In our language we say that Nguthungulli is away out in the Borrgorr now, that means the sea.…”…..
“…The old people knew that the sea was out there. They knew that whichever way the butheram, the story of Nguthungalli went, it was towards the sea, Borrgorr. You can hear the sound of the sea in that word. They had seen then that we were on an island.”……….
“….Nguthungulli has big rocks in the Borrgorr, the sea, where he lives today. Out in the caves in those rocks in the sea, Nguthungulli has four daughters and one son. And his son is called Yar Birrain…”….
….”There were two brothers called Wao and Jarring. When Jarring died, Wao came over to the place called Korrelya in these mountains. Wao went after those two emus which were the ‘barnyunbee‘, the spirit of Jarring.”….
“But the emu’s kept moving away. Wao kept on going after those emus day after day. When the emu’s had a rest, he would have a rest. When the emu’s would get up and go on, Wao would go after them.”……
“He had no time to make tea or anything….He had to keep going day after day and rest at night until he got to where Nguthungulli was in the rocks in the “borrgorr‘, the sea, in the sunset .”….
“Wao had been chasing those emu’s for months. He wanted them for his own barnyunbee, his property, his totem. When the emu’s came to the sea, they lay down on the beach. When Wao came up close to those emu’s, a fairy fairy man called Tjoolorr came out of the sea and asked Wao, “what are you after?”……
” Wao said, I’m after them, pointing to those emu’s.”…..
“Tjoolorr said, “You can’t take them. They belong to Nguthungulli“…”…….
“Tjoolorr asked Wao what he wanted to do and Wao said he wanted to stay three days, “Borrorr yabborr“. That means ‘two and one’ – three days.
And when Wao had stayed there three days, the fairy man ‘Yar Birrain‘ came and took Wao out to the rocks in the sea. But Wao couldn’t see Yar Birrain…….. Yar Birrain took Wao out to the rocks in the sea where Nguthungulli is……. Wao stayed three days inside that rock……. And the fairy women told him, “you cant see Nthung, Father. You can hear him talking, but you can’t see him.”….Yar Birrain told Wao too, “You can’t see Father, though you can hear him when he talks.”….
“Wao stayed there only three days and then left that place. Wao couldnt open the door by himself, not Wao, he couldn’t. Yar Birrain opened the door and told him not to look back when he put his foot down on the path over the sea, but to go straight for land.”…..
“When Wao landed back on the beach, he was back with Tjoolorr. He had come to Tjoolorr. When Wao came to the beach where Tjoolorr was, Nguthungulli made a song about Wao…He said “I can’t give you those emu’s, but i will give you this song”…
“Then Nguthungulli sang this song to Wao:…….”…..
“Ah, Wao, why were you walking after those two fairy emu’s?”.
“Wao, that was your brothers spirit, those fairy emu’s.”
“Those emu’s are Mine. I own them again.”
“Those emu’s your brothers spirit, have come back to Me…”….
“Then Wao travelled back to this country and brought the song back with him.”…….
“All of this Bootheram can be shown in the vault of the milkyway and is mirrored onto the land below….it can never be changed……for no-one can change the stars”.
All Cultural and Intellectual Copyright [Moral Rights] of the Ngarakbal Githabul is protected under international lore….
Coodgen Lake and its Headland, Kingscliff, is a most significant sacred site of the Ngarakbul people…the Ngarakbul are the marriage clan of the Githabul
“I want to share with you a creation Bootheram about Skinlore marriage lore which links the two most eastern volcano’s of the Australian continent together – from the stars…… This Bootheram that was relatedNgarakbul Great Grandmother Charlotte Brown from the Tweed Volcano where Yar Birrain [Mt Warning] is the centrepiece of the Ngarakbul ancestral estate……it aligns with a sacred Lake – Coogen Lake” – which flows to the sea at Kingscliff , once known as Coogen Headland”….
This story governs of the kinship skinlore and it comes directly from the Star Ancestors…..it is written in the sky and into the ancestral landscapes…it is very sacred to the Ngarakbul people”.
“It tells of a sacred union between our two volcano tribes …the Ngarakbul and the Githabul in an ancient tribal Skinlore Marriage from the Dreamtime……back then there lived a young beautiful girl called Kumbarra. Her people were the Beereen people of the Ngarakbul moiety”….
“At the time there was a great war, for the Githabul were fighting the Ngarakbul….and while the tribesmen were fighting the girl saw a handsome valiant warrior, Burrigan, wearing feathers in his hair, who was the champion…..and when the fighting was over a great corroboree was held and Kumbarra was given in marriage to the victorious Burrigan“……
“On her journey to her new husbands country everywhere Kumbarrra travels she plants the “Boorlum” or Ti-Tree……when she comes to the border of Ngarakbul country she encounters an old uncle of Burrigan, and he tries to steal her by impersonating the young warrior….Kumbarra realises the plot and begins to run, so the old uncle calls up a magic fish called Warragun, who is the rainbow serpent to form a living bridge…..when the old uncle steps upon the bridge Burrigan commands the serpent to roll over and the uncle is drowned for breaking lore”
“All creation Lore is ‘written’ into the geological formations of tribal country – and at night the lore sails across the vault of heaven…..it can never be changed because it is written in the stars which Nguthungulli, created” ……
” A very sacred story of divine marriage , made in heaven …….Man, Woman, a Serpent and a Sacred Tree….. The celestial Adam and Eve from Genesis”
“This same lore has been faithfully passed down since the beginning of the dreamtime …This is how Charlotte taught her people Lore about the Star Ancestors ….it is called “Boorlum Bootheram” , the Ti-Tree Dreaming“……
“DAWNTIME…when all creation was created – there were also people of the Spirit World made. Now the name of the Good Spirit people is Wooyun – Wooyung ….. They are a kind of fairy people. You may behold these people for they look like ordinary mortals, but they are only seen for a little while” ….
“It happened that one day the fairy people were travelling down to Coogen Heads and with them was a lovely young fairy girl. Now this girl had been promised in marriage to a young man brave as he was handsome, for he was in charge of a Bora Ring – the sacred Ring – to where all young men must go for the initiation Ceremony so that they may be proclaimed men of their tribe. For a man to be placed in charge of a Bora Ring he must indeed be a good man, so all the people of the tribe many know that he is worthy to be placed in charge of the SACRED BORA Ring”…..
“When the time had come that the young fairy woman had reached womanhood she thought of the man, the young man to whom she had been given in marriage when a child. The dawn had kissed many days and the stars had kissed many nights since she had seen him last. Then one day she saw him in at Coogen Heads – she knew he was the man to whom she was promised in marriage – for her heart told her so”.
“When the battle had been fought at Coodgen Heads, the young man went to his home at Meeahan, which is the name by which Crown Mountain was known to the tribe of the young man. So the fairy woman set forth to seek her lover – she came to Meehaan, and the people of there told her “yes ! the young man whom you seek and who will be your husband came home but is gone again”..So she set forth on her journey of seeking her husband, carrying with her the bark of the Ti-tree, she had brought with her from Coogen Heads”…..
“This Bootheram was collected from my Great Grandmother Charlotte Williams [nee Brown] by Mildred Norledge who interviewed Charlotte on Radio and published the Ti-Tree Dreaming in the Dawn Magazine in the 1950’s….”
“Cudgen is very sacred to both men and women of the Yoocum Yoocum Culture…the red soil has great spiritual significance to the Origine’ people and their creation lore …this sacred landscape represents the beginning of the transcontinental Songline of Australia – on the land and in the stars of the Milkyway”
“ Cudgen Lake – that’s the beginning of the Rainbow Serpent SUMMER SOLSTICE Star Lore, Marriage Lore, – it is sacred to the Women and their StarLore of the Seven Sisters, which tells of the creation, and strengthens the ‘connection to country’ through Grandmother Lore ……this same creation lore links all the moieties together across Australia…and that is why it has been targeted for genocide “…..
All Cultural and Intellectual Copyright [Moral Rights] of the Ngarakbal Githabul is protected under international lore….
It’s become ‘trendy’ [and profitable] to claim descent from aboriginal blood…and many greedy souls are scurrying to feed at the trough – draining the limited funding allotted to struggling and disadvantaged Aboriginal peoples ……But how would you tell if someone really is an Aboriginal , or a fraud?
One of the by-products of human consciousness is self-consciousness, that is, knowing deeply that you are alive….And part of self-consciousness is also wondering where we came from; it’s clearly human nature to seek one’s roots.
For some people, that task is relatively easy because there are oral legends or written words that go back at least several generations (assuming family history is passed down accurately). But for most people, the path backwards is rocky, cluttered with confusing detour signs, or simply blank…..
The recording of Origine’ culture was not a priority for colonial settlers in Australia……after initial invasion and occupation surviving peoples were incarcerated into Labour Camps and Reserves; all distinct individual tribal countries were obliterated and all individual clans homogenised under the blanket classification of ‘Aborigines’, from one side of the continent to the other….in the subsequent decades the white Australia policies set about claiming the native bloodlines were on the decline – dying out.
Several generations later many ‘white’ Australians are often excited to discover they may have aboriginal connections, and some even perceive there will be lucrative perks….native title claims and ILUA’s with the lure of potential ‘trust funds’ fuels the [all too] human ‘greed gene’…….and Reconciliation process trained the population to not ask to many questions [ its supposedly racist?]…..
But with billion dollar lands, mineral and development deals often at stake, why cant the public ask questions? ….Don’t the people have a right to question what actually constitutes an Aboriginal person and how much ‘ab-originality’ should someone possess in order to be given access to assets ?
Legal historian, John McCorquodale, has reported that since the time of white settlement, governments have used no less than 67 classifications, descriptions or definitions to determine who is an Aboriginal person… Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody, National Report (1991), Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra [11.12.5].
The Australian Law Reform Commission [ALRC] discussed the definition of an ‘Aborigine’ in its 1986 report, The Recognition of Aboriginal Customary Laws…….. The ALRC noted that early attempts at a definition tended to concentrate on descent, without referring to other elements of Aboriginality……. Problems arose in deciding whether descendants of unions between Aborigines and settlers were to be regarded as Aboriginal for the purposes of various restrictive or discriminatory laws [for example, disentitling Aborigines from voting or enrolling to vote]. In applying these restrictive laws, tests based on ‘quantum of blood’ were commonly applied….. ¼, ¾, or half caste, etc.
The Commonwealth Parliament obtained the power to legislate with respect to people of ‘the aboriginal race in any State’ in the 1967 referendum…… Aboriginal people were finally granted the legal status of being Human…. The Commonwealth subsequently enacted a number of statutes for the purpose of providing certain rights and privileges for the exclusive benefit of Indigenous Australians……. These statutes have generally defined an Aboriginal or Indigenous person as ‘a person who is a descendant of an indigenous inhabitant of Australia’, or a member or a person ‘of the Aboriginal race of Australia’.
These individual Aboriginal statues marks the inception of what will develop into a hidden apartheid system – an alternative legislative pathway which uses aboriginal legislation as a means of sidestepping ‘interference’ by the greater Australian community……..only for aboriginals and operated by bureaucrats.
In the early 1980s, the Commonwealth Department of Aboriginal Affairs proposed a new three-part definition of an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person.
An Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander is a person of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent who identifies as an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander and is accepted as such by the community in which he [or she] lives.
But what if the community he [or she] lives in is dominated by a culture of whole families fraudulently claiming aboriginality?
Then the Federal government departments adopted the definition as their ‘working definition’ for determining eligibility to certain services and benefits. The definition continues to be applied administratively in relation to programs such as Abstudy funding for tertiary students, or aboriginal housing and health services, etc.
These ‘freebies’ led a lot of multi-cultural Australians, living comfortable regional existences far removed from the struggles of the remnant tribes existences on reserves, to suddenly become interested in claiming aboriginal descent [no matter how removed]
The ‘bucket’ of cash which was allocated for ATSI programs became swamped with applications from all over…..but the bucket has a fixed amount and the more mouths ‘sucking’ on the tit, the less funds go to the truly disadvantaged…..this eventually ended with remote aboriginal communities loosing funding and having to be relocated yet again, their culture dispersed…..a sick cycle of dispossession continues….
The greedy fever of ‘easy-money’ has seen aboriginal identification proliferating…with the catch-cries of “compensation” infecting the memberships of Aboriginal Lands Councils and welfare departments…. and most recently, the native title process….. with circumspect individuals claiming to descended from apical ancestors Origine’ families…….and even filing native title claims without the Origine’ families knowledge , let alone consent.
In his story on the business of bloodlines Tony Koch, a Chief Reporter in Queensland for the Australia Newspaper, explains…..
“There is pride in discovering an Aboriginal family background, but some people lie about it to gain undeserved benefits”
“In the days when the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander commission existed and squandered much of its billion-dollar budget like a drunken sailor, Aboriginality to a scheming, dishonest person meant possible access to high-paying positions of authority in legal, housing, employment or native title organisations where accountability was often little more than a joke”….. ,Kosh writes.
Aboriginal academic and co-chairwoman of Reconciliation Australia Jackie Huggins told Kosh how people would contact ATSIC or Centrelink claiming they had discovered that a fictitious grandparent was Aboriginal.
“The calls would get to me and these people would ask what special benefits they were therefore entitled to claim,” Huggins said.
“I would say: ‘This is what you will get — life expectancy of 20 years less than non-indigenous Australians, and if you are a woman, add three years; you will get sick and tired of going to funerals; probably get diabetes before age 40, and if not, kidney, heart or lung failure will kill you before you are 60’.
“Spiritually and culturally, there is a treasure trove of benefits. …..
“I am sick of people wrongly claiming that economic or special welfare benefits flow to Aboriginal people. It is just not true. I would recommend an ATSIC publication titled Matter of Fact which spells out the truth for all to see.”
On April 20, 1998, Federal Court Justice Merkel handed down a 120-page decision in Shaw and Another v Wolf and Others. A key element in that judgement establishing the status of Aboriginality was the declaration that to be Aboriginal one must, among other things, be descended from the inhabitants of Australia at the time immediately BEFORE European settlement.
Several key Native Title Indigenous Lands Use Agreements [ILUA] have been signed in New South Wales by ‘Aboriginals’ who could not show their connection to country from BEFORE the mid 1800’s ……………….This resulted in Native Title NOT being achieved, and having to be surrendered…..either Extinguished ….or in exchange for DEVELOPMENT….click on the below links to view the ILUAs of the Byron Bay Bundjalung which extinguished Ngarakbal Native Title without consent of the moiety.
The most celebrated case of disputed Aboriginality occurred in the Queensland sugar coast town of Bundaberg in 2000 when claims were made by one branch of the Appo family that more than 100 members of their family were of Sri Lankan descent not Aboriginal, and were wrongly receiving concessional loans and benefits said to total millions of dollars over three decades.
Tony Kosh’s research revealed that, “There were allegations of wrongly claimed business and legal assistance, and even other claims that some family members were selected in state and national indigenous sporting teams despite not having Aboriginal heritage”.
“The issue came to a head on July 21, 2000 when Allan Keith Appo, then 66, was charged in the Bundaberg magistrate’s court with possessing undersized and female mudcrabs”.
“In his defence Appo claimed that the Fisheries Act did not apply to him because he was Aboriginal and therefore he could fish without restriction”.
“However, Department of Primary Industries legal officers researched Appo’s genealogy and presented generations of birth, death and marriage certificates showing his heritage was purely Sri Lankan”, Kosh states
“Magistrate John Brennan found Appo was not aboriginal and fined him $2300. ………Ironically, Appo was represented by Townsville Aboriginal Legal Aid which also funded his appeal to the District Court — where he lost again……..Appo, who has since died, said in an interview with me at the time that he had documented evidence from locals who swore he had Aboriginal blood”, Kosh recorded
Kosh was told by Appo that his reasoning for perpetuating the fraud: “If this decision holds, my children and their children will be affected because they will not be eligible for Aboriginal programs,” he lamented.
Spokesperson for the branch of the Appo family opposing him, Julie Appo, said at the time that it was destructive to real Aboriginal people to see jobs and program concessions going to people not entitled to such claims.
She told Kosh that “This deprives a genuine Aboriginal person of getting a job, position, a wage — and thereby providing something for his children to aspire to,” she said.
Kosh had found that earlier, in January 1995, another Appo family member from Bundaberg was also caught by fisheries inspectors with undersized and female crabs. He was charged and used the defence of Aboriginality, but was found guilty because birth certificates showed he did not have Aboriginal heritage.
He was fined $2700. Despite that conviction he continued to vote at ATSIC elections, claim Abstudy grants for his children and sell Aboriginal art.
He revealed his two brothers and a sister, his wife and his five children “all went through school on Abstudy”.
At that time Aboriginal corporation administrator, Garry Hamilton, of the Brisbane legal firm Minter Ellison, stated that the incidence of non-eligible people claiming Aboriginality for financial benefits was “rampant”.
He told how he had been appointed as administrator at Dalaipi Aboriginal Corporation at Caboolture, north of Brisbane in the mid-1990s. “The former administrator of this organisation just let anybody in,” he said. “There was an incredible number of white Australians with no Aboriginal connections at all getting benefits. It was so bad I just had to close the place down.” He told Kosh
There are many who have suggested that MtDNA testing could be introduced to determine Aboriginality.
The Australian Law Reform Commission tabled a report in May 2003 titled – ‘Essentially Yours: The Protection of Human Genetic Information in Australia (ALRC Report 96)’ – it was the product of a two-year inquiry by the ALRC and the Australian Health Ethics Committee (AHEC), involving extensive research and widespread public consultation. The inquiry was the most comprehensive ever undertaken into these issues in Australia or overseas.
The report covers an extensive range of activities in which genetic information plays—or soon will play—an important role. The two-volume, 1200 page report makes 144 recommendations about how Australia should deal with the ethical, legal and social implications of the New Genetics.
Dr Loretta de Plevitz and Larry Croft summarised the four major barriers to proving Aboriginality by means of genetics as follows:
“Firstly.… there is no such thing as a genetically differentiated ‘race’: we are all one species.
Secondly … if race is defined by cultural and genetic context, then there are difficulties in proving membership of the ‘Aboriginal race’ as on this definition there were hundreds of Aboriginal races pre-1788.
Thirdly,….looking at the polymorphisms in an individual’s DNA shows us who they are related to. But this just defers the problem of whether those people related to the claimant are Aboriginal or not.
Fourthly…….who could the claimant’s genetic inheritance be tested against? It would be necessary to construct DNA reference groups based on ‘pure blood’ Aboriginal people covering all geographic groups in Australia. If by chance one of the reference DNA groups was very similar to the claimant’s then we can show descent … as the Australian Aboriginal population is so genetically diverse, there would need to be a large reference set of people for all genetically distinct groups …
Where there has been the wholesale extermination of entire groups of people, claimants attempting to prove their Aboriginality may not be related to any of the reference groups because there is no longer a reference group for them “…….L de Plevitz and L Croft, 13 March 2002.
Dr de Plevitz is a lecturer in the Faculty of Law, Queensland University of Technology; Mr Croft is employed by the Institute for Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland.
“Though possibly an improvement on ‘blood’ quantum definitions, the utility of this summary can still be questioned, not least of all on the grounds that there is no such thing as an Aboriginal race. Most scientists long ago stopped using the word ‘race’…”..….Department of Aboriginal Affairs, Report on a Review of the Administration of the Working Definition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (1981), Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, cited in J Gardiner-Garden, The Definition of Aboriginality: Research Note 18, 2000–01 (2000)
However, genetic kinship and ancestry testing has important limitations in practice. First, it relies on the availability of reference samples for comparison. If a living person wishes to establish that he or she is a member of a particular family group, the person must find someone within that group who can provide a genetic sample for the purpose of comparison. This becomes more difficult where a person seeks to establish a biological relationship with a person or family group that has been dead for years, decades or centuries.
The Human Genetics Society of Australia agreed that, in the absence of archival genetic material, genetic testing that identifies particular polymorphisms among a group might support the contention of common ancestry, but would not prove it definitively:
The relative isolation and small population base of indigenous peoples of Australia prior to European settlement makes it very likely that the frequency of many genetic polymorphisms in pre-European contact indigenous peoples differed from that of Europeans. Such differences may be expected to vary across the continent. A polymorphism absent or rare in Europeans but common in an ancestral indigenous population is likely to persist at a higher frequency in the descendants of that population than in peoples of European descent. Its presence at an appreciable frequency in a group claiming common ancestry would support the contention of common ancestry but not prove it. Its presence or absence in any given individual would not establish or refute membership of the group. None of the above, in the absence of archival genetic material, could establish association with a geographical location. Cultural and genealogical information is more likely to provide evidence of association between a group of indigenous individuals and a geographical location than genetic information.
John Presser, a forensic scientist, commented in a submission: “In conjunction with other information, especially lineage or family trees, mtDNA is informative as to aboriginality where an unbroken female lineage exists. But it is imperative to remember that if no ‘aboriginal’ sequence is found, this result is silent as to aboriginality, all you can say is that there is no direct female line of descent and the result is inconclusive. It does not prove non aboriginal descent”…J Presser
The overall outcome – The Inquiry considers that under no circumstances should any person be required to undergo genetic testing to establish their Aboriginal descent. Claiming this would have significant ethical implications, and would arguably constitute racial discrimination against Aboriginal persons.
In reality true ancestral Indigenous familial structures differ in cultural organisation and historic context…… with the notion that Aboriginal identity can be determined through a Eurocentric model of descent that privileges western familial structures, totally inappropriate.
Origine’ Skinlore Kinship systems are matristic ….derived from arranged marriages which cycle across blocks of 12 generations, radiating in cyclic triangulation’s…all of which is tracked using celestial pentagram cycles – connecting people to country for millennia – through their GRANDMOTHERs lineage …..tracking MtDNA sequencing to ensure genetic health of the people.
The Coowarragum stone complex at the Pinnacle is the first Skinlore site on the most eastern landmass of the Australian Continent to be ‘lit’ by those stars….it is located on the boundary of the ancestral estates of the Ngarakbal Githabul tribes of the Yoocum-Yoocum moiety…..it was recorded on the National Parks and Wildlife Aboriginal Sites Registration in 1980 by Archaeologist Adrian Piper.
These same Ngarakbal descendants have been excluded and discriminated against. Removed from recognition in the Byron Bay area apparently due to being able to prove their ancestral descent from BEFORE occupation….but then that wouldn’t have assisted the NSW government with achieving extinguishment of native title or a Development ILUA.
If true moiety groups were supported to be identified instead of the governments administrative ‘Aboriginal Nations’ system – which is currently being enforced through political propaganda to facilitate administration of the people and operate as an alternative legislative ‘development’ pathway which dispossesses all Australians ….perhaps if this happened then things would get better in aboriginal communities.
Perhaps, if traditional Skinlore kinship descent systems were used to identify true Aboriginal bloodlines and totemic lore custodians then instances of genetic fraud could be eradicated and the limited purse of Indigenous funding would actually make it to the destination it has been designed for…….
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