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Ancient War in the Centre of the Earth – The Australian Indian Connection

Many think that Origine Lore, being an oral tradition, must be fallible…after all, how can [oral] truth be ‘held unbroken since the beginning’ when most people today can’t even keep ‘Chinese Whispers’ straight for more than three passes……….But what most don’t realise is that the stars, if you know how to read them [across the vault of heaven] actually hold all the creation lore, or Bootheram, as the Origine moieties call it…….and this knowledge of  specific stars and constellations form vast celestial calendars which ‘remind us to remember’ important global events

continental drift

One such global event is held in the oral traditions of the Bandjalang tribe of Evans Head on the east coast of New South Wales….it records a great war that took place between the matristic old world tribes [of the Feathered Serpent Traditions] battling patriarchal new world invaders who came from an area surrounding the Caspian Sea….these new world invaders travelled down to cripple the ancient tribes of northern India, pushing them to the south towards ancient Australia……

This war took place over 10,000 years ago…marking the beginning of the arrival of the ‘New World’ culture onto the southern continent of Australia after yet another global cataclysm had forced migration and evolutionary changes upon the planet….

This invading patriarchal culture would wage war over the matristic tribes of the northern hemisphere for thousands of years…with the only thing stopping them from completely invading Old World Australia being post cataclysmic sea level rise cutting Australia off from the northern land masses…thus preserving the Old World matristic Starlore culture.

The southern continent has held its ancestral matristic lore since the Alcheringa [the beginning of the Dreamtime]…several million years – and several ice-ages….during this time many invaders have arrived…..but this particular migration/invasion over 10,000 years ago served to successfully split the ancient Origine culture…creating a second wave of culture – patriarchal, with its own rites and ceremonies…and many matristic lands were appropriated by the ‘new’ arrivals…this wave of cultural anomalies can be identified in anthropological works of early academics …and thus, the wars of 10,000 years ago began forming the next phase of Australia’s Origine history….

History is always repeating itself, so first of all I should explain a little bit about the present ‘split of culture in this country’….Ok…so now you know that we have a pre-invasion cultural system that includes both ancient old world and ancient new world cultures [which I just explained occurred approximately 10,000 years ago] …But now, as a result of British invasion we also have a post-colonial invasion system overlayed onto that……and this British system is an exclusively patriarchal colonial system which only recognises and endorses the [relatively recent – new world] patriarchal Origine lore……completely omitting the matristic.

This exclusive patronage is less than 20 years old …it began 50 years ago with the need to administrate the survivors of the initial British invasion…but it has evolved, and presently [over the last 20 years] the government has created administrative systems which it calls ‘Aboriginal Nations’….rights

These aboriginal ‘nations’ first showed up after Native Title was won in the courts [ie; Origine peoples v’s the Commonwealth Government] back in the early 90’s…prior to this there were no nations in Origine lore.

Today these ‘nations’ systems control all aspects of the lives of the Origine peoples lifes….using apartheid processes, where-by one culture is relocated and used to take over and administrate the ancestral area of another…these are referred to as forced closures of Aboriginal communities – which dispossesses them from their ancestral lands and renders them refugees in centralised areas…..

These nation systems are linked to changing ancestral culture and language, which in turn changes geospatial place names on maps, which in turn changes who can prove [in a court] originally owns the land…….which cause lots of fights – and this then causes more administration to ‘step in’ to take control…..it’s all a vicious circle…

The Commonwealth was about to lose control of all the land after native title was proven,  so by 1993 they commenced their solution…. an old tried and true method of the pen being mightier than the sword…it’s a post invasion methodology used all over the planet….

Conquer a country…make up a nation system to administrate them, force them to change the language, then change the maps to match, then use the new records to control administrative title of the land and water…Check it out and you’ll find it has occurred everywhere…..

tent embassyRemember…..the aboriginal nation system was only created in the last 20 years…basically it’s a rework of the colonial administration legislation to combat the post civil rights success of aboriginal recognition…following orders from their own patriarchal governance systems in England …ironically this is the same process  enacted on Britannia when their ancient tribes had been invaded by Rome……but they forgot to remember and have subsequently, and often, repeated the same mistake against the tribes of the colonies…….

The legacy of this process can be seen in relation to the Bandjalang Tribe [as distinct from the Bundjalung nation]….the Bandjalang are a tribe, or family kinship group of the old world moiety systems that existed before colonial invasion….

In December 2013 the Bandjalang Tribe successful achieved a Federal Court Determination of Native Title against the Australian government….they proved in a commonwealth court of law that they were the traditional owners of the lands and waters around Evans Heads http://www.northernstar.com.au/news/native-title-for-bandjalang-native-title-granted-a/2102587/

The Bandjalang peoples fight for recognition took them over 17 years during which time they went to great pains to oppose the government from referring to them as being part of the ‘new’ Bundjalung Nation system … Faithfully maintaining their cultural integrity [as a Tribe] proved successful for the Bandjalang people……

To Date, no native title claimants who have identified themselves as a member of the Bundjalung Nation, or any aboriginal nation has achieved Federal Determination in a commonwealth court….instead claimants have only conceded to be party to State Indigenous Land Use Agreements, or ILUA’s, which extinguish Native Title …..

So the Bandjalang tribe winning federal determination was a double edged sword….for despite beating the government in court, the Australian government still refuses to publicly acknowledge them in their own right and instead only endorses ‘nation’ cedes …

This same pattern of exclusion occurs to any other Origine group that has achieved federal court success, such as the Githabal….With any group who refuses to identify and be conformed into the nation system ending up being buried in a clandestine quagmire…..ancient cultures forced into assimilating with administrative nations systems or be damned to receive no assistance….meanwhile, to the world the nation system is being promote globally as the purported ‘truth….the rest of the planet totally unaware that it’s happening…..it’s a hidden apartheid..

Needless to say all this aboriginal nation system propaganda creates lots of surreptitious opportunities for corporate exploitation of land, waters, flora, fauna and people…. and it’s ongoing…destroying our Barrier Reef…polluting our ground water reserves…causing extinction of species…..mining uranium….tapping gas…devastating remnant forest….and occurring against the will of all Australian people excluded by the apartheid administration….our-culture

But…let’s get back to India and the war in the centre of the earth…..and the central island which sank and the pre-colonial matristic lineages, or Feathered Serpent Traditions of Australia…..

Several recordings of Bootheram lore outlining the war in the centre of the earth were made…initially by first colonial researchers in the late 1800’s….many of those records have been systematically eradicated in sanitised historical rewrites,  funded during “the Ministry of the Arts” political portfolios of the mid 2000’s when the aboriginal nations system was being developed and widely promoted……..any librarian or who opposed the alterations was sacked…any individual, ostracised. …….leaving only one independently published work from the early 1950’s which recorded and preserved the Bootheram….hiding it, not in historical records, but in poetry……

This Bootheram was collected in 1957 by an Australian poet named Roland Edward Robinson during the lead up to the Civil Rights campaigns of 60’s…..the Origine people at that time were denied having legal status of being human….to amend this they chose to tell their sacred Bootheram to trusted supporters…to people like Roland Robinson, who was helping them prove they had their own traditional lore and culture and deserved civil rights recognition and protection….Civil rights only happened in Australia in 1967…less than 50 years ago…

roland r head shot…..During an interview in 1973 Robertson stated   ‘I think that I have received more comfort, more enlightenment, more religion, and poetry from the Aborigines, than from any of the wise books of the white man’…….and I certainly have to agree with him…

Bootheram and the Matristic Starlore explains creation and connection of all biological life through combining science and doctrine to achieve sustainability….true caring for country…as opposed to the present biblical law which forms the basis of land tenure legislation for the planet causing entropic chaos globally…

But, before there was patriarchal law, there was Matristic Lore….Matristic linages follow stars and migrate seasonally….the vault of the stars can be read and they can’t be changed, unlike man-man books….The Origine peoples call their ancient matristic lore ‘Bootheram’ and the beautiful thing is it matches the Indian Vedas, the Tamil and the Sanskrit Matsya Purana……also epic poetic works…..

During a meeting I had with an Indian astrophysicist in 2007 we were both astounded to find the correlations between the ancestral Australian Origine knowledge and the ancient Indian culture….with shared knowledge of a central land mass that had sunk beneath the oceans…and Indian cave art with no decipherable meaning , which also matched Origine 1-635x400

We spoke at length about the marriage systems and the cast systems, both based on the stars…and we also realised that both cultures knew about a war in the centre of the earth that had pushed old world ‘hairy man’ survivors to the south and isolated them in Australia during an ancient invasion of the lands we now know as India…india - lilly….We shared knowledge of how this had occurred when a numerous and aggressive northern army from up near what is now the Caspian Sea waged war against the old world cultures….My astrophysicist friend was astounded to learn that a culture outside of India still retained the same knowledge…and it went back not just 10,000 years, or 15,000 years, but millions of years……all the way back to the Alcheringa….

Of Course current academics have been studying the genetic linkages between the Australian Origine peoples and the Indian….but these studies centre on the patriarchal lineages….whilst it is the matristic that records the ancient hairy genome and how [and why] it is linked to the marriage lore star cycles.

Unfortunately, the exclusive endorsement of the patriarchal cultures has brought much undue prejudice against the matristic lineages….causing patriarchal cultures to get all precious and superior about matristic bloodlines and ‘hairy-men’…….So it’s important to remember that northern hemisphere Neanderthals were hairy too – but died out [or were destroyed] approx. 40,000 years ago in Europe – and just like the Australian hairy lineages, they’d evolved to survive ice ages…

My own research on Matristic Starlore found the India Australia link to be supported by Bootheram traditions of migrations arriving to Australia occurring over several epochs…not just one…..with the common global link being the celestial deities spiralling from the south celestial stars, cyclically ….most all the global remnants of this old world lore has been usurped by the patriarchal, save the matristic lineages in Australia..

Unlike the patriarchal cultures, the matristic moieties [which is mitochondrial or MtDNA breeding – based on star cycles] can trace its bloodlines back millions of years and retains knowledge of events during those ancient times because of the constancy of the stars…including knowledge of ice ages and hairy people…

Currently the ‘Hairyman’ is being featured on Australian television in a new series called Cleverman…and though promoted as mythological it is in fact drawing heavily from reality……..ART imitates Life…

“Cleverman is set in a near-future Australia in which ancient creatures, the “Hairypeople”, have re-emerged to take their place alongside humans. However, coexistence is not so easy, with government agencies unwilling to recognise the Hairypeople (or “Hairies”) as citizens and limiting their movements to a heavily policed “Zone”….     http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-05-26/burke-an-indigenous-superhero-series-with-a-political-streak/7448642

So how did the ‘new world’ arrive in the ‘old world’?

One academic, Professor Alan Cooper, from the University of Adelaide’s Centre for Ancient DNA, says the Indian influence may well have played a role in the development of the Aboriginal culture – outlined in a paper titled ‘Genome-wide data substantiate Holocene gene flow from India to Australia’.

Professor Cooper says it is impossible to ignore the link with the discovery of the dingo…….”The timing of all those things in the archaeological record, about 4,000 to 5,000 years ago, happens to match the timing estimated for this genetic influx from India,” he said…

I, myself, have found the matristic lore of Dogs following the tribes as well as the Starlore of the two heavenly dogs [or dingos] who ‘guard’ the marriage cycle in the stars can be found in many global cultures, including the Anubis of Egypt, or Kemet…and that the Kemet were regularly trading with east Australian tribes several thousand years ago…and with India….

Professor Cooper also points to another development that happened around the time of the Australia Indian connection – a big expansion of one of the Aboriginal language groups…

“This other language seems to have taken over Australia relatively recently – perhaps 5,000 years ago,” he said……”And how it did it, how it replaced the other ancient languages, we don’t know……..”So suddenly, 4,000 to 5,000 years ago is starting to become a fairly tumultuous time in Australian history.”……he says.

Yes….they have used this assimilation formula again and again… change the language, and change the maps to match the imported language [or attribute the name on the map to the newly created nation in the geographical records], and thereby retain control and title of the land and water……..

There are 3300 year old maps in the Museum of Cairo with Australia clearly identified on them….and hieroglyphs which use Origine southern hemisphere Starlore deities on the pyramids and tombs…..there are even Egyptian tombs in Australia [the Gosford Glyphs]…all sanitised out of His-story or, like the ‘Hairy-man’ linages, excluded….Egyptian map showing aboriginal - 3,300 bc - based on mural from Hierakonpolis tomb mural

Perhaps if the Bootheram Lore of the Carpet-snake clan matristic lineages wasn’t so stealthily buried we would understand more about our past, our present, and most importantly, how to survive the future….

“We know so little about Australian human legacy, and yet it’s perhaps one of the longest continuous occupations of any human cultural group in the world,” Professor Cooper said …….“It’s one of the most rich and challenging stories in human history, and we know almost nothing about it.”………..

Some academics did and still do try to negotiate the labyrinth of sanctioned historical records…in the past so few of them thought to just ask the Origine elders…. Currently, in Australia, all academics are required to adhere to ‘memorandum of understanding’ contracts which exist between government education facilities and government created nations…no concurrence – no degree….resulting in no matristic lore being allowed to be identified let alone included.

Anthropology is a contentious field of study and Thomas Henry Huxley was by far the most influential early European thinker about human origins……. Champion of Darwin’s theory of evolution, as a young man Huxley visited Australia on the HMS Rattlesnake in 1847, 11 years after Darwin came here on the HMS Beagle………While he showed little interest in anthropology at the time, he would subsequently go on to found human evolution science and strongly shape Darwin’s ideas about our origins.

In 1870, in On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind, Huxley proposed that Indigenous Australians were closely related to the people of South Asia, confidently asserting:

‘The only people out of Australia who present the chief characteristics of the Australians in a well-marked form are the so-called hill-tribes who inhabit the interior of the Dekhan, in Hindostan.’

http://newsroom.unsw.edu.au/news/science-tech/ancient-australian-connection-india

Hindostan is an historical region of India considered at various times to include only the upper Ganges River Plateau, or all of northern India from the Himalaya mountains to the Deccan Plateau and from the Punjab to Assam….which also coincides with the area referred in matristic Bootheram Lore as ‘the centre of the earth’….Kailash…..with portions of Bootheram describing a central island area linking Australia to India…and a ‘sacred spring’….

Lost-Continent-of-Kumari-KandamThis in turn coincides with the Kumari Kandam legends of the central land mass depicted in the ancient Tamal and Sanskrit Matsya Purana texts linking to a great southern island…….. and, in these texts they describe the movement of the earth mass, called ‘Navalam Theevu’ in Tamil, which caused the formation of the present continent of India….and severed Australia from the north…

The present formations of India, Arabia, Africa, Antarctica, South America and Australia started breaking up due to natural upheavals and moving to different parts of the earth at the rate of 15,000 years per mile on an average and found their places in the Asian Continent….which makes these ancient lore’s VERY old….

shiftAlso aligned with Origine matristic Starlore, the Rig Vedic Myths are symbolic expressions of astronomical phenomena, both of lunar asterisms and solar movements…and they are linking them to geological movements; again, the same as Origine Bootheram – as above so below

”Kumari Kandam”, the land that lay to the south of India and, which later submerged in the Indian Ocean, has been a matter of conjecture for many scholars…..but few of them realise [yet] that Australian Origine Starlore is recording the other side of the ancient Indian story..

 “Because of a calamity, which took place in 9,000 BC, a terrific destruction occurred and destroyed Chera, Chola and Pandiya Kingdoms and they all then came and settled in South India. The great scholar Sri Avvai Duraisamy Pillai has established that the “Pancha Dravidam” is the region consisting Gujarath, Maharashtra, Andhra, Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu”.

“This is the time to write the correct history of Tamil Nadu. In “Irayanar Agapporul” (Nakkeerar Urai) it is mentioned that 72 Pandiya Kings had ruled Tamil Nadu (which was inclusive of the destroyed Kumari Kandam) from 30,000 B.C. to 16,000 B.C. (i.e. for 14,000 years)”.

“Eastern Island, 1,000 miles near Japan, has a script called Rongo Rongo and it is identical with Mohenjo-daro letters. This has been fixed as 1,00,000 years old”…

These are just some of the quotes of eminent India scholars confirming the migration from the ‘centre of the world’ in northern India and the vast timeframes of these world histories…. http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/lemuria-and-kumari-kandam/article482101.ece

Mohenjo-daro [Mound of the Dead Men] is an archaeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan…Built around 2500BCE, it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley and one of the worlds earliest major urban settlements contemporaneous with the civilisations of ancient Mesopotamia, Minoa, Chorte Chico and Egypt…with Egypt trading with east coast Origine moieties during these times….

All this global academic speculation includes every continent, except one… AUSTRALIA – the most ancient land on earth…..

The suppression of the lore by Australian authorities systems denies the matristic Bootheram to be brought to the attention of the masses and unified with the work of international academics……one has to ask why not?….is it in order to retain control – by suppressing matristic language and changing maps to retain tenure that allows the earth to be raped..?….

Australia is the missing link in this old world history and vital to decoding its meaning ….because our ancestral Bootheram has a very important function…It reminds us to remember, and teaches us how to be sustainable over long timeframes….but if we are denied access to learn from the true records of our past, then we, as a planet, are doomed to blindly repeat the problems…..

Anyway…here is one of the Bootheram’s describing the sunken island and the ancient war in the centre of the earth …it was collected and published by a roustabout [cowboy] from Coonamble, named Roland Robinson, who would collect and publish many Bootheram from tribes all over Australia under the protective guise of poetry, which before the common man learnt to read and write was the way oral history was retained and faithfully passed….

This particular Bootheram is called The Sacred Spring….It’s celestial matristic Starlore that is using metaphoric symbolism to describe geological and climate events – as above so below – and it is loaded with time marker clues that match many described in the Indian texts which record their lands being invaded from the north and the ‘old world’ being pushed to the south, towards Australia….

Robinson collected this Bootheram in 1953, from a Mr Ken Gordon, who was an elder of the Bandjalang tribe, from the time before patriarchal ‘aboriginal nations’ were ever created…..it’s called ‘The Sacred Spring’ and its describing an epoch when the earth had a different equator to the one it has now, which I’ll tell you about in another blog…so if you would like to hear more, please subscribe…it’s free and will be emailed direct to you…Hoo Roo……

The Sacred Spring –

 “This story is a Budgeram [sic]. When the old people said Budgeram they meant “Away back from the beginning’.  In the beginning of the world there were three people…

There was Ngudjungulli [sic]…. Buloogan and Guangun…..

Ngudjungulli is the boss of the whole world…he never dies.

Buloogan and Gaungan, they both died.

Buloogan was the most handsome man in the whole world.

Gaungan was the most beautiful woman in the whole world.

Buloogan died, but he is supposed to come back some day.

He’s above all these wee-uns, the cleverfellers.

From the beginning this land was one whole land from here to India.

The Aborigines used to go over and fight the Indians and come back again….the old people said that the people they fought had a kind of turban thing slip off and you’d see their long hair fall down backwards.

There was a sacred spring in Queensland…..No one was allowed to go near it.

Once, when the aborigines wanted to go over to India to fight, there was one man who had two wives.  He didn’t want his wives to follow him to India…so he took his nulla nulla and half killed them both.  Then he went over an left those women behind.

When the man were gone, those two women put their heads together…”Now, we’ll go to the sacred spring”, they said.

Well, they took their yam sticks to that sacred spring.  From the spring, one went digging this way and one went digging that way…”We’ll keep going till we meet one another”, they said….as they dug the water from the spring followed them. Where they met, one water goes this way and the other water goes the other way…it is the roughest water in the world.

Well, these aborigines finished their war over on the other side…They started on their way back…when they got along a bit they saw just one mass of water.

This Buloogan was with them.  He made the mountains and islands rise out of the water…Then, with their ‘borror’, the string that they pull out of their mouths,  the clever-fellers took this cord and threw it from island to island…They crossed over this cord until they landed back in Australia.

As soon as they came back they knew what had happened…

They blamed that man for beating up his two wives….

These warriors came across those two women talking at the Australian Bight…One of the wee-un’s, the clever-fellers, turned those women into stone…After that the aborigines lost touch with the outside world…They never went back fighting any more…

This was the beginning of the world…”…….

Ken Gordon – Banjalang Tribe ….from – ‘The Feathered Serpent’ – by Roland Robinson

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Matristic Origine Dreamtime Lore – part 1

eye of biamie

The Origine cultures of Australia are the oldest living cultures in the world….and the last unbroken Matristic cultures on the planet…….

Matristic Lore is neither patriarchal or matriarchal , but instead is derived from the ancient nomadic traditions which honoured both sacred masculine and scared feminine for their own essential qualities….qualities ‘gifted’ to them from the celestial realms from which all life descends

One of the reasons the Origine have survived for so long is their ability to live in harmony with the grand celestial cycles which impact our solar system and planet. The Origine people’s ability to adapt to change has allowed them to maintain their ancestral traditions unbroken since the Alcheringa, which is the Ngarakbal Githabul dialect for  ‘the beginning’ of the dreamtime.

Commencing on the east coast of Australia the ancient matristic lore of the Origine Dreamtime radiates across the continent.  Spiralling from the south celestial pole the ancestral creator beings rise one by one in the Australia skies in the unending celestial particle dance of All Creation.  Refreshing and recreating the journeys of the Sky Ancestors which birthed our solar system including this small blue planet we all call ‘home’.

For the past 200 years, since invasion, the spirituality of the Origine culture has been deemed primitive and incapable of supporting genuine religious life. Messianic Christianity undermined Origine spirituality in the belief that the Origine had been living in darkness prior to the advent of the church in their lives.   As a result the Origine people found themselves the victims of cultural genocide.  Their traditions and beliefs swept aside without treaties to protect them, without even official acknowledgement of their humanity until the 1967 civil rights recognitions. And still the systemic dispossession of the ancestral traditional lore’s and customs continues today, despite many voices calling for its preservation and perpetual protection.  The oppression and disenfranchising of the Origine peoples continues in an attempt by contemporary [patriarchal] corporate governance to maintain tenure of the rich and abundant resources of the great southern land….a pattern of administrative governance inherited from Rome and used all over the contemporary world today.

All administrative governance is derived from the Roman church doctrines…..all law.

These Roman laws are exclusively patriarchal and have no inclusion of the feminine to balance and sustain the earth in accordance with natural lore…..and so everything and everyone are subjected to entropic decay – and a dying planet

On the flip side the ancient natural lore, commencing with the All Mother, who is terrestrially defined in Australia as the Tweed Caldera Volcano, the most eastern land form of the southern continent, and it still holds  the embers of the last fire of the ancestral matristic lore – a fractal lore of increase rights and obligations which once encircled and unified the entire planet …..even now this last fire battles from being extinguished as a result of patriarchal law processes…. and erased from the face of the earth just as the Romans encompassed all of the ancient ‘goddess’ religions of the globe.

However, today, science is validating the profound truths of the wisdom held within the ancestral matristic lores essence.  Academic researchers and historians are piecing together the surviving fragments of cultural heritage and working with Origine Wisdom Keepers to reignite the fires of traditional lore and culture of the matristic lineages of Australia in peace and harmony with all nations for the greater good…..the Vision – to rebuild a new global paradigm of community and love for all, from the embers of the old matristic lore.  A lore that encompasses and acknowledges the sacred connectedness of every life force and form sharing this precious orb, together….

One Earth. One Sky. One Lore

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Invasion of East Coast Australia – Ngarakbal Githabal Lands

To achieve Civil Rights recognition in 1967, the Ngarakbal Githabal Elders told their stories….some of the stories were ancestral Lore Bootheram, and some of the stories were historical parables about what had happened in the invasion wars….But all of these stories were vitally important in bringing about unity…and through unity, success…rights

 ….“The Invasion of the Northern Rivers of NSW by Europeans began in earnest in 1821 when the Penal settlement of Port Macquarie was established on the Hastings River…In later years cedar getters arrived and harvested cedar apart from the Penal Settlement”….N.C. Keates.”Wollumbin”…………..

The ‘accepted history’ books tell us that the Tweed / Gold Coast environs were established in the mid 1840’s….The first Cedar getters [wood cutters] were claimed to have arrived by boat in 1844…commencing the indiscriminate ‘clear fell’ denuding of the Gondwana Super Forest from the Brunswick River, just North of Byron Bay…However,  the oral traditions of the indigenous Aboriginal people tell of this lands invasion beginning well before the 1830’s…The first white skinned invaders they say also arrived by sail boat long before Cook claimed the country for the crown…. contrary to the contemporary history presented by Australian authorities the traditional Aboriginal people tell of a prior arrival of the Spanish in the 1500’s coming to Byron Bay……..but,   this has been eradicated from the authorised historical records….prior arrival in Australia would nullify the Crowns claim of Terra Nullus as unoccupied lands….and this is not a popular political option…..IMG_205881337394860

The authorised histories also tell us that John Oxley had discovered the entrance of the Tweed River and sailed into the Tweed Caldera on his Northern voyage (1823) scouting for a suitable penal colony location,  but the treacherous Tweed  bar, the density of the Caldera  jungle and the numerous (200+) angry natives was not ‘conducive’ to a fledgling settlement and so he pushed North to Moreton Bay/Brisbane…and here in 1824 they built the northern jail colony – to operate simultaneously to the southern Port Macquarie settlement

Now, both of these penal colonies were established by British soldiers who had served in the Napoleonic wars – mercenaries…..and scrutiny of the authorised academic records, and the more elusive ships logs, shows these invading mercenaries used classic Roman ‘pincer’ strategy to invade the Yoocum Yoocum ancestral lands……Advancing simultaneously from both the northern and southern penal colonies….pushing upriver, into the mountains….the goal was trapping everyone in the middle…thus, the brutal invasion of the Yoocum Yoocum – ‘Bird Tribe’ lands began…..

The northern Invading forces pushed West, South West from Brisbane…And, at the same time, in the South another group of soldier mercenaries were rampaging West, North West, traveling upwards into the mountains, advancing via the southern flows …

1843 by Surveyor Finch recorded one of the first publicly released detailed maps of the area known as Moreton Bay to Port Macquarie…
1843 by Surveyor Finch recorded one of the first publicly released detailed maps of the area known as Moreton Bay to Port Macquarie…

The two Rivers they followed were the Northern Logan/Brisbane and the Southern Clarence…These rivers come from the one source – The Condamine Catchment of the Murray Darling River complex – which to the ancestral Yoocum Yoocum moieties is ‘Rainbow Serpent Dreaming’…The mercenary invaders followed the rivers (like roads) to the headwaters…. massacring many along the way….

Thousands of traditional owners fled into the safety of the Tweed Caldera highland escarpments…traditional site of creation lore of the Rainbow Serpent Bootheram [Dreaming]…high volcanic jungle….

tweed caldera
satellite image of the Tweed volcano caldera

Carved by the waters…ringed by the rivers…for the traditional peoples fleeing from the terror of (never seen) guns the Tweed Caldera was a strategic point of survival because of its rugged topography…… and blessed with an abundance of resources….a natural fortress…..

Over Twenty [undocumented] years the initial invasion war’s raged in the Yoocum Yoocum lands …and, like the sanitised maps, these years were cleaned from the authorised histories….but, despite the cover-up campaigns,  the oral histories of the survivors recount how the invaders continued to come…like invading ants … lusting for land and the red gold of Cedar wood – later followed by the Gold-diggers establishing the first gold fields behind the lush volcanic lands…despite the reprisals of the Traditional people the invaders continued to come………. “Savage Ants” – the  oral metaphor for the numbers and ferocity at which they attacked the ancestral peoples…

Here is one account from Mr. Alex Vesper, who was one of the Ngarakbal Githabal Elders that had been removed from his ancestral country and sent to Stony Gully Aboriginal Reserve near Kyogle….Mr Vesper was later sent to Mulli Mulli Aboriginal Station when the Stony Gully Reserve was revoked by the authorities… Along with the other survivors of his people he was given no rights of recognition as a Human being…so, Mr Vesper, with his fellow elders, rallied his people to overcome the divisions that the ‘invaders’ had so skilfully manipulated…bringing all the people together to lobby as one….dropping ‘old grievances’ and working together they brought about the Civil Rights recognition of the people in 1967…These people are heroes that authorities refuse to acknowledge……..Over-coming manipulation, putting aside self-interests and working together for a positive outcome, together….

To achieve their monumental success the Elders told their stories….some of the stories were ancestral Lore, and some of the stories were historical parables about what had happened to their lands, lore and language by succumbing to the divide and conquer mechanism of the invaders manipulations, in the past…..

In the following account, called ‘The Attack on Tabulam’,  Mr Alex Vesper relates an historical event about a Mr Ogilvie who was a Squatter that established a sheep grazing station in the ancestral lands of the Yoocum Yoocum ….Now, this is a landscape that had seen many invasions and has had a long history of inter-tribal warfare as a result…

The Squatters, which were exactly as the name implies – illegal occupiers,  quickly figured out the inter-tribal dynamics and would manipulate the ancestral tribes – drawing on the ‘Old scores’ – setting one tribe against another …text-book ‘divide and conquer’ mechanisms…the Squatters led the tribes to attack one another – and do so willingly on behalf of the Squatters…unfortunately, little did the ancestral peoples realise what they were being led to do….and so,  Mr Vesper told this story to remind everyone to work together during the decade of the Civil Rights campaigns……forget ‘old scores’, stay unified, and succeed

 

Alex Vesper - in the centre
Alex Vesper – in the centre

The Attack at Tabulam – by Mr Alex Vesper 

………….”The shooting of the Aborigines in Ogilvie’s time was the beginning of fear in the Aborigine and a terrifying of him which eventually drove him from his tribal life and place.  It happened about 1835.

Ogilvie started a grazing station at Baryulgil, and the area of his grazing even came as far as the southerly part of Tabulam.  He had sheep grazing on the area, and it was reported to him that his sheep were being killed.  He came up to the place where the sheep-killing had been reported.  He blamed the aborigines for killing the sheep instead of blaming the dingoes.  He got aboriginal and white stockmen from Grafton and they gathered to attack the tribe at Tabulam.

Through the night, they prepared to surround the camp of the aborigines and to attack at dawn to get everybody unawares.

So, when the aborigines at Tabulam knew that they were going to be attacked, they were warned by their divine powers.  They also prepared.

They told their women and old men to pack up and go up Rocky Creek to the mountainous country at a place they call Bull-Dog.  All the clever-fellers, the Wee-uns, were left with the war-faring aborigines to await the attack.

The clever-fellers, the Wee-uns, said, “We’ll wait until they attack the camp and then we’ll see who has the power.  The bullets will not hurt us.  We’ll stop them with our magic power.”

So they waited.  Of course, the aborigines who were affiliated with Ogilvie thought with delight how they would have the women of the Tabulam men after the camp was attacked.  That was the custom of the aborigines, to take such women back to their own camp.

Well, on the morning of the attack, Ogilvie and his stockmen surrounded the camp while it was still dark. The Tabulam aborigines had kept fires going in the camp all night.  Apple-wood was the notable wood used, it would burn all night.

Just at dawn the attackers had the camp surrounded.  The Tabulam men were painted up, they were painted white, waiting for the attack.  They were singing their sacred songs in order to paralyse the gun-power.

At daybreak the attackers sang out to the camp, “Hoy! Hoy!” The white painted aborigines came out of the camp and the attackers had them surrounded with their guns.

Then Ogilvie and his men said, “Will you surrender?”

The Tabulam aborigines said, “We won’t surrender, but if any of us get shot in the legs or arms, we’ll finish you.  You’ll pay the penalty.”  But Ogilvie and his men pulled out their guns and started firing.

The Tabulam aborigines never flinched.  Their sacred songs had paralysed the guns.  The bullets were deflected, and half the guns never went off.

The Tabulam aborigines called out, “Look out if you hit any of us, you’ll pay the penalty.”

So, when one of the Tabulam blokes who wasn’t so clever was hit in the arm, he sang out in the language, “I am hit!”

“All right,” said the Tabulam clever-fellers. “That’s good enough.”

Then one of the Wee-uns, the clever-fellers, pulled out a spear and speared the white man, who had shot the Tabulam man, through the heart.

Ogilvie, when he saw this, threw up his arms and cried, “That’s enough! That’ll do now!”  He surrendered, and all his mate surrendered.

Then the Tabulam Aborigines sang out, “We Jabilum! We Jabilum!” and stamped on the ground.  This meant, “We belong to this place.  We are the originals!”

“Hello,” Ogilvie said, “we’re friends now!” And he told his aborigines to make friends.  The Tabulam aborigines said that since Ogilvie had surrendered they would make peace.

They buried the man who was speared.  Then, afterwards, Ogilvie invited the ‘Jabilum’ men down to Baryulgil.  The aborigines explained that the sheep had never been taken by them.  They had no need to kill sheep, they had plenty of food of their own, possum, duck, fish, wallabies and yams.  They told the white men that it was a bad report that they had been killing the sheep.

And Ogilvie quite admitted, by surrendering and making peace, that he was wrong.  And the tomb of the man who was speared is there to this day at Tabulam……”………Mr Alex Vesper – recorded by Roland Robinson in 1966.

The use of parables to illustrate collective visions is nothing new….His-story has used it to grand effect to validate the appropriation of tribal nations globally…

The stories of the Yoocum Yoocum Elders brought about unity, and through that unity recognition….by looking deeply into the strengths and the weaknesses of the people, and moving forward together……..It’s important to remind ourselves that we are all wanting a better world to “grow up the future”……so, here’s a nice reminder of what the future is about….enjoy…

If you would like to receive more of these posts then subscribe to my newsletter [its free] and they will be automatically sent to your email address…Hoo Roo

The Black Dog Spirit of Fingal – Aboriginal Lore of East Coast Australia

The Ngarakbal Githabal are the ancestral aboriginal people of the most easterly land on the Australian continent….a landscape protected by their ancestral spirits…one such spirit is ‘Ineroogun’ – the Black Dog of Fingal Heads….arial fingal

The ‘accepted history’ books tell us that the Tweed / Gold Coast environs were established by the colonialists in the mid 1840’s…. this is a sanitised pro-crown ‘His’-storical view…..

The first Cedar getters [wood cutters] were claimed to have arrived by boat in 1844…commencing the indiscriminate ‘clear fell’ denuding of the Gondwana Super Forest from the Brunswick River, just North of Byron Bay and throughout the Tweed Caldera…However the oral traditions of the Ngarakbal Githabal indigenous Aboriginal people tell of this lands invasion beginning well before the 1830’s…The first white skinned invaders they say also arrived by sail boat…. but contrary to the contemporary history presented by government,  the traditional Aboriginal people – the Ngarakbal Githabal- tell of a prior arrival of the Spanish in the 1500’s coming to Byron Bay and Fingal Heads…All pre-crown arrival has been eradicated from the authorised historical records… a prior arrival in Australia would nullify the Crowns claim of Terra Nullus as unoccupied lands….and this is not a popular political option…

portret_W_Blaeu-280x300Anyway, over one hundred years after the Portuguese-Spanish arrived, the first Dutchman to get to Australia was Willem Janszoon aka Jansz in 1606…… Not much is known about his early years, other than he was born in 1570, but what we do know is that he served the Dutch East India Company (VOC), which was a chartered company established in 1602 to carry out colonial activities in Asia…….  In 1603, he became captain of the Duyfken, which means ‘Little Dove’, and it was aboard this ship that he first sighted Australia while searching for outlets of trade near New Guinea…… Once he crossed the Arafura Sea, he travelled west and landed on the western coast of Cape York just near Weipa…possibly, following charts that had been captured from the Spanish

Jansz-mapJansz started to chart the area, thinking that the land was still New Guinea, but after finding nothing but swampy land and violent encounters with Aborigines, he decided to throw in the towel and return to Indonesia…..He called ‘his’ new found land ‘Nieu Zeland’, but the name didn’t stick and was used by Abel Tasman about 40 years later for New Zealand…which is located off the eastern coast of Australia.mmmmm……..Now, Aboriginal Elders are insistent that two Spanish landings took place in the ancestral coastal lands of the Ngarakbal Githabal people, on the east coast of Australia…One at Byron Bay and another at Fingal Heads…..Both are purported to be Spanish Shipwrecks which occurred at Suffolk Park south of Byron Bay, and on Cook Island, situated just off Fingal Headland

Fingal Headland is a beautiful place…its known as “Mynjung Booning”……… “Mynjung”, which is the Ngarakbal Githabal word for ‘place of’;  and “Booning”, which means Echidna …Place of the Echidna…… Fingal’s precise location is Latitude -28.199042, Longitude 153.571315fingal

Separating the Tweed River from the Pacific Ocean, Fingal is a narrow peninsula several kilometres long. It ends at the mouth of the Tweed river and on the opposite bank lies Queensland. . The peninsula north of Fingal village is known as Letitia Spit, a sand spit that has been slowly accreting due mainly to the construction of the river’s southern training wall – from rock quarried from Fingal

Aboriginal associations stretch well back into the dreamtime with anthropologists claiming that the area supported one of the densest nomadic populations to occur anywhere in the world. Skeletal remains of people estimated to have been around seven feet tall have been found on the Peninsula….

In contemporary times Fingal has been referenced as “Pooning”…most notably in the crowns geospatial lands records  for LAW, Land and Language are linked…..and the ancestral people understand that for its the same in traditional Lore – Lore,  Land and Language are linked – but,  the crown chooses to only recognise the name ”P[b]ooning”  for Fingal….[the ‘P’ and ‘B’ sounds blurr together  when enunciated…]…..

echidna2P[b]ooning” is the Ngarakbal Githabal name for the Echidna, or Australian porcupine…and the word P[b]ooning is attributed to Fingal Headland because of the rock formations that occur on the headland…. Spectacular basalt columns that resemble the spines of an echidna, and, the ancestral Ngarakbal Githabal people believe that the spirit of the echidna inhabits these headlands…Burleigh Heads located to the north also has similar formations and is also traditionally referred to as being a “Mynjung” [Place of] “P[b]ooning” to the Ngarakbal Githabal…and several other sites that this rock formation occurs in are too.fingal causeway by G Shlatter  (1)

Anyway……There used to be a large cave at Fingal, but it was blown up to form the break-walls of the Tweed River ….. For the Ngarakbal Githabal the cave site is the ‘dreaming home’ of a protective [supernatural] hairy man said to abide in that cave on Fingal Head and also a giant black dog whose story is linked to the creation of the McPherson Range…but the crown chooses NOT to recognise these ancestral Lores or that the Ngarakbal Githabal totemic ancestral name for Fingal is ‘Inneroogun’ – the Black Dog…..said to now roam the area, homeless….since the Cave was destroyed

fingal causeway by G Shlatter  (2)The columnar basalt lava flow at Fingal Headland extends underwater to Cook Island (named after Lieutenant James Cook who explored the east coast of Australia in 1770)…… The lava is thought to have come from the prehistoric Tweed Volcano and is known as “Lismore Basalt”; predominantly tholeiitic with occasional alkaline types…….. This unit is stratigraphically equivalent to the Beechmount Basalt in Queensland – west of the Lamington Plateau….which is also refered to by the Ngarakbal Githabal as being a “Mynjung” [Place of] “P[b]ooning”……

Now,…I need to include all this historical and geological stuff in order to explain how the Ngarakbal Githabal Bootheram Lore, Land and Language are linked, to geospatial lands records….and thus, land tenure.

The jointing, clearly evident at Fingal Head is caused by contraction: as lava cools from the outside toward the centre, shrinkage cracks develop, usually forming hexagonal patterns (the shape of the columns is attributed to tensional stress). These columns are vertical because the lava cools from top to bottom when the flow of lava is horizontal

Just before the turn of the century, the Department of Public Works blasted and quarried the massive basalt caves of Fingal Head….and in the process they desecrated the ‘djuribil’ [sacred site] of the Ngarakbal Githabal……. During the1950’s and 60’s sand miners cleared and destroyed not only most of the littoral rainforest which blanketed Letitia Spit but also numerous burial sites, including at least one of the former massacre sites.

All of this destruction occurred during the crown occupation process when the ancestral peoples were being systematically relocated to policed reserves…moving them further and further from their ancestral lands….and due to their legal status as being Flora and Fauna up until the success of the Civil Rights ratification in1967, the blood-line to country descendants of the ancestral people of Fingal have remained dispossessed….however, their Bootheram [Dreaming] Lore survived and was even used to save the Fingal area from massive development…which I’m getting too…

Fingal has historically been coveted as a beachside development site since early occupation but has always managed to remain protected…This protection was largely because of the Ngarakbal Githabal Aboriginal recording the totemic significance of the area and having their language embedded into the geospatial lands records by the crowns first Surveyor’s under order of the old Queen, Victoria.. …Lore Land and Language are linked, so the surveyors used Ngarakbal Githabal language on the original maps…..but, since the advent of Native Title in Australia, the crown is none too happy that the ancestral dialects of the ancestral people are on the geospatial records [the maps]…seemingly because the language attribution [of Ngarakbal Githabal] is the evidentiary material required to claim Native Title ….so, it’s much simpler for them to reclassify it to Bundjalung…change the language classification changes the tenure….it’s an old formula applied globally….

Anyway…back to Fingal…..Throughout the seventies the residential community of Fingal continued to make land claims over Letitia Spit despite the fact that they had no legislative basis on which to rely….. None of these claims were successful [ the residential community not being of the ancestral bloodline of Ngarakbal Githabal country]…Then, after the introduction of the Aboriginal Land Rights Act in 1983, the residential community linked together with other local groups to form the Tweed Byron Local Aboriginal Land Council and immediately lodged new claims over the Spit as well as other pieces of Crown land at Fingal……as a government entity the Aboriginal Lands Council were able to circumvent the non-bloodline prerequisite – write new laws that enabled development …So, In 1986, the Aboriginal lands Council and the Department of Lands negotiated ‘a deal’ in respect of the Spit……The residential community agreed to withdraw all but a small portion of their original claim in return for the Department instituting a Plan of Management over the remainder, aimed at ensuring the land’s protection for future public use….To their credit, the Local Aboriginal Land Council went to some expense in preparing its submission on the Plan of Management…… However, once the claim was withdrawn the Department refused to proceed, and instead commenced researching potential development options…..Of note is that over the subsequent decades several fresh land claims have been made, and like the initial claims,  none of which have included the Ngarakbal Githabal…and;  subsequently, none of the claims were successful…..since then, the geospatial records linguistic attributions have seemingly been stealthily and steadily changed to Bundjalung….

Developers, Ocean Blue Club Resorts Pty. Ltd., posed the first big threat to Fingal They negotiated ‘a deal’ with ‘the department’….planned to build an international hotel on an important dreaming site and remnant littoral rainforest, a luxury marina on a protected wetland area, and a 400 townhouse /condominium complex in place of the existing village. Both the hotel and marina site were Crown Land and zoned as either public open space or for environmental protection….. At the same time, the Public Works Department commenced a feasibility study into the possibility of cutting a new entrance to the Tweed River through Letitia Spit to make a “Super Harbour”…. If approved, the Department intended to pay for the construction work by selling the remainder of the Spit to private developers…… One firm, Adco Constructions Pty Ltd expressed interest in acquiring the land and put forward proposals for around one billion dollars’ worth of tourist and residential developments….. Such intensive development was considered necessary to absorb the sixty million dollar cost of river works.

In order to prevent development of their ancestral djurebil [sacred site] the Aboriginal Lands Council contacted the Ngarakbal Githabal knowledge holders for help…they needed the ancestral Bootheram Lore to save Fingal…..

Now;….The first pro-aboriginal recordings of the Aboriginal significance of the area were made in 1950’s by Mildred Norledge from Kyogle – endorsed by Professor Elkin…She recorded the Ngarakbal Githabal Bootheram from Elders such as Mr James Morgan; Dyraaba Tribe – west of Lamington Plateau…and Mr. Joe Coolhum; Mebbini Tribe – Tweed Heads…These two gentlemen had spoken about their ancestral custodial Lore as their intrinsic contribution to the Civil Rights Campaigns to free their people from the crowns ‘non-human’ status…..They are two more of the Ngarakbal Githabal ancestor Heroes who showed the crown, through their Bootheram, that they did indeed have their own cultural ‘religion, and did not deserve to be legally classified as Flora and Fauna…

The next wave of recordings commenced in the late 1970’s by Anthropologist Howard Creamer for the National Parks and Wildlife Service Aboriginal Site Survey Team…Howard was instructed to identify ancestral knowledge holders within the community…one of the Cultural Elders whom he interviewed was Mrs Milli Boyd of Woodenbong, who was the daughter of Mrs Charlotte Williams [nee Brown] as part of the governments Aboriginal Site Survey Team of National Parks and Wildlife Services…….This information was then used to obtain further interviews of Mrs Milli Boyd [nee Williams]….principally Dr. Margaret Gummow [building upon the work of Anthropologist, Howard Creamer and Linguist, Margaret Sharpe]….This cultural evidence was then used by the Tweed Byron Aboriginal Lands Council to launch legal action, and a subsequent corruption investigation, in regards development at Fingal Heads…

And these are the cases in which the Ngarakbal Githabal ancestral cultural information was used….Tweed Byron Local Aboriginal Land Council v The Minister Administering the Crown Lands (Consolidation) Act and the Western Lands Act & Ors [1990] NSWLEC 67 (19 June 1990)…and TWEED BYRON LOCAL ABORIGINAL LAND COUNCIL v. THE MINISTER ADMINISTERING THE CROWN LANDS ACT [1995] NSWLEC 220 (14 December 1995)…… “By Notice of Motion filed in Court on 23 October 1995, the Tweed Shire Council seeks to be joined in pending Class 3 proceedings involving a number of land claims made by the Applicant pursuant to the Aboriginal Lands Rights Act 1983 (the Act) at various times between 4 January 1988 and 27 March 1992, in respect of various parcels of land having an aggregated area of some 300 hectares situate on the coast line at Fingal in the Shire of Tweed near the New South Wales-Queensland border”…..

……“The Independent Commission against Corruption [ICAC] has yet to release its report and has so far made no findings, but the evidence presented to it has graced the front pages of the metropolitan newspapers for months. Evidence before ICAC revealed that Ocean Blue had paid large secret donations to both the Labor and National parties at times when, as the respective Governments of the day, they were considering Ocean Blue’s application for Crown land at Fingal. The Administrator of the Tweed Byron Local Aboriginal Land Council alleged that an officer of Ocean Blue had attempted to bribe him into furthering the company’s interests. Lawyers from the Department of Lands claimed that they were misled in leasing the quarry site to the wrong company and both Wal Murray and Ian Causley declared that, had they known what they do now about Ocean Blue, they would have refused to deal with them. Whether or not the Ministers were in fact aware of the donation is an issue on which the ICAC has still to make a finding”….Andrew Chalk

And it was the Ngarakbal Githabal ancestral cultural information which won the case…..and Lore was recorded in LAW….

…..“To my knowledge, there are four recordings of this [Mt Warning] song in existence, all performed by Boyd. The first was recorded by Howard Creamer of the NPWS as part of a project concerning aboriginal site protection. I recorded the second performance in 1985 in relation to my PhD research on Bundjalung and Gidabal songs [Gummow 1992]. The Linguist Margaret Sharpe recorded the third performance in 1989 in connection with a project funded by Aboriginal Legal Aid concerning the environmental impact of land and land rights at Fingal Head. The Fourth was recorded on video in the early 1980’s by Lorraine Mafi Williams. In an attempt to preserve traditional material, Mafi-Williams produced the film Eelarmarni [sic] in 1988, which featured Boyd explaining some of the mythology and singing several songs from the area.”…[Gummow;1985;7A   Barwick-Marett-Tuntill 1995:121-131; Tweed Byron Aboriginal lands Council v Tweed Shire Council v the Minister for Crown Lands; and the ICAC INVESTIGATION into North Coast Land Development ]

The following information is based on recordings made in 1989 by Sharpe, speaking with Mrs Milli Boyd [nee Williams] who had learnt the Ngarakbal Githabal Bootheram Lore’s from her Elders… It comprises part of the mythology of the area [Sharpe 1989].

Mount Warning is the shape of a Turkey’s head, and according to Aboriginal people in the area a spirit being called Wollumbin, a wild turkey, lives inside the mountain. Wollumbin owned two dogs, one male and one female, which are associated with Mount Warning and Fingal Head…..One day the dogs were chasing a kangaroo along a ridge. They chased him from Fingal Heads over to Boonah near Beaudesert in Queensland. They eventually came to water and the dogs drank than lay on the bank. Two young girls from a nearby camp came to get water, saw the dogs, and went back to the camp to bring more people down to the river. After spearing the two dogs, they put them on a pole and began cooking them over a fire…….Wollumbin had followed the dogs and knew they had been killed. He flew down onto the flat where the dogs were being cooked and caused a wild storm. The people left to find shelter from the storm. Wollumbin took the dogs off the fire, wrapped them in bark and carried them back to Mount Warning. As he flew across the country, parts of the dogs’ bodies dropped onto the ground below and formed part of the landscape. He went back to Mt Warning and placed the dog’s bones in the water. One dog was placed in the Tweed River near Mt Warning and the other was placed at Fingal Head. It is believed that their spirits protect the Ngarakbal Githabal people in this area from strangers…..Today, at the Tweed River, Ngarakbal Githabal people can hear the dogs bones creaking….

The two Ngarakbal Githabal gentlemen, Mr. Joe Coolham; Mebbini Tribe – Tweed Heads and Mr James Moran; Dyraaba Tribe, told their ancestral Bootheram Lore respectively……. of the Two Dogs, Burrajahee and Ineroogun…. and DHUNGURA NGARIAN which in Ngarakbal Githabal is the name of the Pelican Dancing Ground…. Bootheram Lore must never been changed…it cannot be transferred or claimed by another….for it tells the Lore of their ancestral estate, and within it, embodies traditional morals and values for the people to follow…

The first Lore is “DON’T BE GREEDY”…the story of Burrajahee and Ineroogun teaches that Lore….. To claim or steal a Lore opens it up to corruption and contamination…and, unsurprisingly, that is exactly what unfolded………..

……”As always there is a good deal more to the story. The best parts – the intrigue and maneuvering, the anguish and joy, and above all the people – are most wisely kept for late nights around a fire on Dreamtime Beach, where, well out of earshot of the defamation lawyers, a group will be sitting waiting for the snapper to bite. They will be remembering and they will be laughing, because in 1989 they all did something which they didn’t really think was possible….”…..Andrew Chalk – in regards to the Aboriginal Lands Council court case….Ash

To this date the Ngarakbal Githabal descendants have never been recognized or included in the governance of their ancestral estate by the crown systems….Their culture continues to be appropriated and twisted by those who do not understand the Bootheram and its teachings…the ignorance of the current system thrives on greed, but, the ancestral ‘djurebil’ protection of the Black Dog is indelible, and it’s been written into LAW….

If you would like to read Joe Calhum’s Bootheram of the Two Dogs – you will find it on my website at this address….and if you would like to receive more of these blogs then subscribe to my newsletter [its free] and you will automatically receive them in your email…..Hoo Roo

Genesis of Genocide….and the art of Wrestling

Aboriginal Australians have produced some of the finest sportsmen and women in the world…what many don’t know is the part that sport played in keeping the Lore alive during the colonisation process… Forced onto Reserves by the Native Police force, the Ngarakbal warriors kept morale and Lore breathing at Brunswick Heads Reserve – Byron Bay- until it was wiped off the maps by the crown.

cape byron

The Ngarakbal / Githabal people of what is now the Byron Bay Tweed Kyogle area know a lot about the history of the colonisation of Australia…they were there….their grandparents and great grandparents were forced into created Reserves; or exterminated…Today many of the Reserves have been removed from the maps….but they haven’t been removed from the memory of the people….and the traditional art of Wrestling played an important role…
On the East Coast of Australia– New South Wales as it was all known then – the enforced Aboriginal relocation process was implemented over a period of 50 years before the crown moved to take over the west of the continent from the Dutch…..Oceania Early Discoveries

Commencing in 1848, when the Native Police force was formed, and until the late 1800’s the focus of these forces was primarily to ‘round-up’ the aboriginal population and to assist the crown in surveying and gazetting the East Coast into States [Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania] in preparation for colonisation by free settlers….at this time the western three quarters of the continent was still under Dutch rule

English had only claimed the eastern coast of Australia, so naturally,340 Native Troopers Dispersing a Camp the East Coast tribes were the most brutally hit by the invasion forces….The crown had commenced carving the country up in the 1860’s after removing the ancestral people…removal often meant extermination of entire tribes…they then began selling land to the first ‘free’ settlers at specially organised land auctions using the Crown Land Act along with each newly created state’s own legislation for the same – in New South Wales [NSW] this was the Robertson Lands Act – This paved the way for the East Coast ‘land grab’ to begin….

1880 crown lands sales2The crowns treasure vaults were filling from the sales of the ancestral estates, and the surviving original people were forced onto specifically created Reserves, Stations or Missions….Forty years later, the crown now had enough money to fund a war against Holland to take the western three quarters of the continent by force.. The Borer War was fought in Africa against the Dutch; and England won…the prize was the west Australian lands…… So now all of Australia could be remapped and renamed – no longer NEW HOLAND, it was becoming the commonwealth country of Australia, wholly held by the British….and “by 1901 as white colonialists were undergoing their rite of passage into nationhood, the original Australians were also participating in a rite of passage- but of quiet a different kind”…G. Souter .

1899 Boer war -British v dutchThis historical photo of Australian Troops training in 1899 in readiness to assist the British attempt to exert control over the Dutch in South Africa in the conflict known as the Boer War –  the political process of claiming and retaining control of Continents is dependant on maps & Geographic names and   APARTHEID processes
So, by 1901 the Aboriginal people lost all recognition for, and claim to, their own individual countries and their respective ancestral estates – by force of the crown….They were no longer known as the Ngarakbal, or the Githabal on the East Coast, or the Pinjantjatjar in the centre or the Ngarrindjerri in the south, or any of the other distinctive tribal countries that existed before invasion [ of which there were over 350 individual countries] ….Now, as part of the crowns invasion, claiming and renaming [the maps] process everyone was classified as just being Aboriginal, right across the continent – no distinctions…By 1901 the crown had successfully locked them all into Reserves, Missions and Stations and classified them as Flora and Fauna…’Operation Invasion’, complete….
On the East Coast the Native Police Forces were the initial administration body for the reserves…during this period [the first wave] the ancestral people had no option but to retreat and relocate…..if they didn’t they were terminated…..many battles were fought and many lives were lost endeavouring to hold their lands against the guns – they’d never seen guns…..yet to this day, the crown refuses to recognise that any wars were fought. Which can only be concieved a complete self-serving myopic view, as these following extracts from the governments Byron Bay Native Title reports reveal….
…”The first wave of the relocation process by the Native Police occurred in the early 1850’s ….. Documentary and oral accounts suggest the actions of the native mounted Police had a direct impact on the Aboriginal population numbers occupying the region. The Native Police were active in the area throughout the 1850’s and engaged in punitive raids”….[ Waters 1999;14 McKeown NSW-NTS 2005: 19]……………
“Oral accounts suggest further massacres occurred in the [native title] claim area at Suffolk Park, and further north at Hastings Point [Cudgera] and at Mount Warning as the Troopers returned north”…. [McKeown NSW-NTS 2005: 19 ; Reibe 1999: 97-99]

These reports are [as expected] very pro-crown; despite stacks of evidence within the Ngarakbal/Githabal Oral Lore about the epic battles with the invaders…but it challenges the crowns tenure; so it’s been quashed…..Anyway….., over time there was a second wave of administration where the Aboriginal Reserve’s management was transferred from the Native Police and taken up by church groups…..The respective faiths [churches] obtained leases to land and created the ‘Missions’ …..and some of these were so large that they were known as ‘Stations’ and they held stock belonging to the crown….It is of note too that most of the church leases were for 27 years, after which time they kicked the Aboriginal people out and sold the land for profit….

North NSW Aboriginal Reserve closuresAnyway….The first wave of the invasion administration [the Native Police] had fought the wars against the ancestral people – reducing the population numbers……Then the second wave [the churches] enforced a new religion onto the people and it was the function of this second wave to break the ancestral knowledge apart and reprogram them….Children were taken and placed into separate Mission institutions to learn to speak English and worship a foreign god in the expectation that they would forget about their ancestral lore and language….Adult survivors were sent to Station Reserves and hired out by the police administration [ ironically re-titled the Aboriginal Protections Board ]…they were used as labourers for the first settlers, denied access to their children and punished if they spoke their language or followed their lore….They were allotted numbers [for ease of administration beside their ‘new’ English names] and they could not leave the reserves unless they had authorised administrative permission from the central administration office which was then the Armidale Police extract from State Archives of Aboriginal Reserve at Brunswick - 2029

This administration process served to sever entire families who were divided and sent to different Reserves, Mission’s or Stations – to break down the ancestral culture……if anyone who was [or had been] an antagonist survived, they would be relocated multiple times…sending them further and further away from their ancestral estate area and their family – often sending them interstate 1000’s of km because the legislations were harsher in the remoter unestablished areas of the colony away from prying eyes….it was brutal heartless administrative policy…..genocide by paper – the power of the pen…
Surviving men –warriors- were targeted the most severely throughout…..The lush landscape of the East Coast was deemed ‘ perfect for colonisation’…. for the Ngarakbal/Githabal men this meant many were sent cross border into Qld to a police labour camp known as Barambah….”a dumping ground for the lame, the halt and the incorrigible….the black criminals of the state”…W J Bleakley 1913
…”since the establishment of this settlement in 1904, it has been the dumping ground for natives of all classes from all parts of the state but principally those whose removal from undesirable environments on the fringe of civilisation became necessary for disciplinary reasons…”….W J Beakley 1934….
From Barambah, any antagonists or ‘troublemakers’ who still opposed the invading process would be punished and relocated yet again….often up into Far North Queensland or across to Military Reserves on the Sunshine Coast….some survivors got moved up to eight times….further and further away from their ‘country’ and their kin… Today that same reserve, Barambah, is called Cherbourg and it’s still the largest Reserve in Queensland, but it’s got a lot of beautiful people there with a lot of culture and lore and, surprisingly, compassion ….all survivors of a very dark history and despite this they hold no grudge against the white settlers….displaying a level of forgiveness that many [white] church going citizens could only hope to aspire too.
Back in Ngarakbal/Githabal country [now gazetted as the Tweed, Byron and Kyogle shires] the small reserves began to be ‘reclaimed’ and reallocated as crown land, or sold off by the churches….they just shut them down and moved everyone off into the more centralised Missions and Stations in less desirable country …..systematically heaping more and more people from all different places into ‘controllable’ space, and further and further away from their ancestral areas and their kin…..Overcrowding, deprivation and lack of sanitation caused illness, depression and death….population numbers dwindled and no-one seemed to care….the invasion process orders were on schedule and the outcome was expected to be total genocide via assimilation, within three generations……

What many people today don’t realise is that there were lots and lots of small Reserves everywhere on the East Coast….Nor do they realise that they have been systematically removed from the maps – Sanitising the history and the evidence – Nor do they know about the important role that the sport of Wrestling played at the Reserves…but the Ngarakbal/Githabal do….their role as the keeps of the first portion of the transcontinental songline requires that they keep the historical Bootheram [Lore]…and they do………
Now, the Reserve at Tweed Heads is well known and documented…however it was also reclaimed and is now a shopping centre, hospital complex and a housing estate – it even makes a mention in the box office hit “Muriels Wedding” – where a sleazy councillor takes the reserve away to redevelop – the sub-plot for the film was based on a true story ……but, here is the one the crown tried to hide – probably due to a Native Title claim in the late 1990’s over Byron Bay
Anyway….

for the use of the Aboriginals -Brunswick VillageAt Brunswick Heads [Byron Bay] there was a small Reserve, It was the southern administration facility to the northern one at Tweed Heads… and; thankfully, despite the best efforts of the invasion process, the lore, land and language survived intact….and, how they did that is another story for another time, and its an awesome inspirational story too… I will however, tell you a bit about Charlotte Williams who was sent to the Brunswick reserve as a young woman….
Above is a close up of the Brunswick Reserve, and below is picture of the village of Brunswick, it shows the same Reserve which was wiped off the maps….this is one of the crowns own maps.  Note it has cancelled written across it….its that simple – they just cancel it and remap a new one….this happens with all their maps.1906 Mullumbimby Aboriginal reserve
Charlotte Williams [nee Brown] – Granny Charlotte as her descendants call her- was one the Ngarakbal survivors shuffled by the Administrators…She was a noted midwife, and this granted her ‘authorised’ travel permits between the Brunswick and Tweed Reserves….at that time no-one could leave the reserves unless they had written authorisation and every aboriginal person had been allocated a number – Charlotte had a number and an important purpose…into her was entrusted the Bootheram [Dreaming Lore]….. The crowns administrative policy was strict – “No number, No authorisation, No travel” – culminating in arrest and punishment if “No Paperwork” could be produced…for the Cultural Lore to survive it had to go underground…..This following extract was prepared in conjunction with the Native Title process of Byron Bay….however Charlottes descendants have never been recognised as originating from Byron Bay by the crown….the maps had been sanitised…..
“Charlotte Williams was an ‘ARAKWAL’ woman who, with her family in tow, frequently moved between the coast and the Nimbin area. For a time the Williams family lived at Middle Pocket near Mullumbimby and it has been reported that a woman known as Queen Charlotte performed domestic duties at homes between Skinners Shoot and Tyagarah in the period c.1925-30. Charlottes Williams clearly had traditional knowledge of the Byron Bay locality [e.g. the myth of the Fairy Emus and the song Wao] and a great deal of knowledge was passed on to her daughter Millie Boyd”….[Colins1990:45]

Women were the last to be relocated from the coastal Reserves  – deemed less troublesome…As a young woman Charlotte had been allowed to remain on the Brunswick Reserve in her ancestral lands but over time she was systematically relocated many times as well….Charlottes Father was a white man…[Aboriginal women were often exploited by the Administration]…  Her half Brothers had previously been sent to other Reserves….Tom [Close]was one of her half brother’s…He was sent to ‘Stony Gully’ Reserve near Nimbin and then onto Mulli Mulli Station….Charlottes Full-blood Ngarakbal warrior Grandfather – ‘Johnny Brown’- was relocated many times due to his opposition to the invasion….king Brown -WoolumbaHe eventually was sent to military Reserves located at Lake Cootharaba and Tin Can Bay near Fraser Island Queensland as punishment, but he sure gave the crown some hell before he was captured…. Also a story for another time…..Anyway, how does Wrestling come into all this???…..
Well, despite all the tragedy the Ngarakbal warriors, of which Johnny Brown was a senior Lore man, kept their spirits and their warrior skills alive whilst incarcerated at the Brunswick Reserve….and to do this [undetected] they used Sport…
The spirit of Sport is universal and it provided entertainment for the Native Police and the White Administration to watch….Among the most ancient of all sports are Wrestling and Running….Of course the warriors were denied their weapons which were traditionally used in their sport events….spear, boomerang and nulla nulla [club] throwing contests to demonstrate strength and proficiency were common before invasion… but the sport of wresting was something they could still do whilst held captive on the Reserves… it also meant they could train for combat.
So, let’s look at traditional wrestling….Now, the object of traditional wresting amongst the Ngarakbal was not to link or grip their opponent in such a way as to overpower them and make them helpless and unable to move…..It was instead the skill and agility in grappling with the opponent, to throw him to the ground clear without him holding you…..but, he could hold you as long as he could carry you….the craft taught combat skill, endurance, patience and timing
It works thus…..First there are three persons selected from the one totem tribe, and another three from another totem tribe…..for ease of explanation I will call the first group the Pelican Men and the second group the Emu men1890- byron Bay men Mitchel libraray PXA689no
This 1890 photo of Byron Bay Aboriginal Men appears in the book Time & Tide Again – Library of NSW PXA689 no.14…..
….”A clear ground, free from shrubs or rocks, is selected, a soft sandy spot. Before the contestants arrive, the members of the respective tribes congregate to witness and barrack for either side……then the men arrive, their bodies may or may not be smeared with oil and ochre…presently a person steps forward and he holds in his hand a boomerang and a small throwing nulla nulla [club]
He turns to the contestants, addressing them…” You are called upon today to uphold the honour of your tribe. One of you may win or take the prize”….and he holds before them the newly made boomerang and nulla nulla
These weapons are placed into the ground, like you would with cricket stumps/wickets at one end of the ring …..The referee then calls to the men who will defend these weapons…..[in this example] it’s the Pelican totem men who step forward…and their supporters shout encouragement…and they walk to the end of the ring that has the weapons standing upright in the ground.
The three Pelican totem men stand in front of the weapons, facing the opposing team members of the Emu totem who are standing ten to twenty metres back at the other end of the ring…..then the referee calls to the Emu totem men to take the weapons from the Pelican totem men
The first of the three Emu men walks forward towards the weapons and at half distance he is met by the first of the three Pelican men, who grapples with him to prevent him from coming closer to the weapons…..Now, let’s suppose the Emu man throws the Pelican man to the ground…He can now rush forward where he is met by the next Pelican man [number 2] who has come to defend the weapons… The Emu man now must wrestle with Pelican man -number 2…. and suppose he also throws him to the ground…. Emu man rushes on and is now met by Pelican man – number 3….and now the war begins….The third Pelican man strains every muscle to defend the prize and the honour of his tribe… he must prevent the Emu man from advancing to where the weapons are standing upright in the ground….They wrestle, both falling to the ground, and then rise….. The Emu totem man is getting nearer and nearer; he reaches out to take hold of the ‘nulla nulla’,….almost gets it, but his strength fails….He gives up and returns back to his team members with a feeling of defeat. Now… the second Emu totem man makes the attempt, but he may not have the skill or the strength to tackle the three Pelican totem defenders….but still, in honour of his tribe he will try….he also fails and must return to his team at the other end of the ring…….Now comes the third Emu totem man….instead of walking he runs and perhaps knocks the first Pelican totem defender down, then meets the second and throws him to the ground….Now he grapples with the third Pelican totem man, throws him to the ground and takes the ‘nulla nulla’ and returns to his team companions amidst cheering from his tribe….
Now they are given a rest….perhaps an hour or more.
The referee then takes the boomerang, and places it on the side of the Emu totem men….and says “Take the weapon from the Emu totem”
The first Pelican totem man goes forward and is met halfway by an Emu totem man, they begin wrestling and perhaps the Emu man lifts him and throws him upon his shoulder, and then carries him to the end of the ring back to his Pelican totem team…this means he lost – he doesn’t continue to wrestle with the others…..
So then, the second Pelican totem man also fails in the same manner…he can’t continue either….so, it’s up to the third Pelican totem man to defend his tribes honour and capture the boomerang….But he tries and also fails…..
Then the barrackers of the Emu tribe shout with joy, because the Emu totem men have won the prizes; the boomerang and the nulla nulla…
The Pelican totem men in their defeat will take it in good spirits and wave as a sign of friendship and of expressing desire to meet again in the future in a similar challenge…”….adapted from original by D. Unaipon
So…. it’s an attack and defend version of wrestling, running and endurance….and as you can see by the photo above, being placed in Reserves didn’t stop the Ngarakbal warriors from practicing their training….training for a war to defend their land…more on that later thou…..
Some of the more complex traditional games can involve up to 50 men who, using a wooden cross like object that is spun on the surface of the competition ground [moving it like a football between the teams] teaches the important skill of hunting agile game, like kangaroo, emu and wallaby….This ancestral game has also produced some of the best natural footballers in the world
Then there are other more complex gaming events that involve whole tribes gathering to compete….many of these game events will last an entire day, and some even longer….to an outsider these events appear to be war….but this is not the case…the object of these gatherings and sporting events is to solidify community ties and also serves the purpose of exchanging information that improves the skills of making boomerangs and spears…for the women it is a great opportunity to learn new weaving techniques and meet with kin…..but most importantly it was the opportunity to gather and entertain each other with the added bonus of maintaining the spirituality of the land and all it contains….
Upholding the Bootheram [Dreaming] Lore through performance, dance, song and oral tradition is one side of the lore….maintaining a living culture unbroken despite all attempts to wipe it off the map or lock it away to die in Reserves requires stamina…No…the culture never died…it adapted…Taking the best qualities of whatever it was exposed to, maintaining morale and morals, applying the lore’s of healthy competition, endurance, skill and patience…aka, the art of wrestling.

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Aboriginal Significance of Mount Warning/Wollumbin

The Ngarakbal and Githabal are the descendants of the ancient ‘Bird Tribes’ of Australia…..They call the dreamtime, ‘Bootheram’….In 1977 Howard Creamer an Anthropologist for Australian National Parks and Wildlife Services recorded many  of the significant cultural sites within the Ngarakbal Githabal lands as part of the governments Aboriginal Sites Survey…

king Brown -Woolumba

The Ngarakbal and Githabal have witnessed many arrivals into their homelands. Some came in peace, others in war… Many cultures from far away lands have come to this beautiful place over the thousands and thousands of generations just as they come today…and with each arrival, or conquest the Yoocum Yoocum have encompassed these event into their ancestral Bootheram [Dreaming Lore]  – oral traditions, songs and dances of the historical truths about the events that took place in their ancestral lands…because Bootheram is not only the story of the land and all its biological inhabitants, plants and animals, but also the story of the all the peoples who have ever come to this ancient Volcano….the Abode of the Rainbow Serpent.

The Ngarakbal and Githabal refer to themselves as keepers of the ‘Feathered Serpent Lore traditions’ – The Bird Tribes…Birds are the Feathered Serpents, the descendants of the Goanna [dinosaurs]…and the Ngarakbal and Githabal are the descendants of the Bird Tribes…thus,  the Ngarakbal and Githabal are the ancient ancestral moieties of this landscape….They did not come here, they were always here…There lore tells of how they were made here…This ‘knowing’ is held in their Bootheram lore [Dreaming]…..The birds gave them their Lore, their land, and their LANGUAGE….but more on that later

In the meantime, here is the Aboriginal and Anthropological Significance of Mt Warning/Wollumbin  – recorded by Howard Creamer for the Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service in 1997…..it’s an extract of the  transcript of the site registration but I have attached the original site registration…and the original audio file that Howard Creamer gave me…..

Aboriginal and Anthropological Significance of the Site Wollumbin recorded by Howard Creamer, Anthropologist for Australian National Parks and Wildlife Services.

The following information on Wollumbin was recorded by Mrs Milli Boyd [nee Williams] of Woodenbong…see below….She was born at Woodenbong around 1910 and comes from there but her mother and husband were from the Tweed Valley area and she has maintained links there all her life.  Woodenbong is in the traditional territory of the Gidabal people, while Wollumbin is in Nerackbal country. There are today very few people who identify as Nerackbal and the Tweed Valley is now perceived by most people as being within the area of the large Bunjalung tribal language group.  The following transcript of a tape recording made in December 1977 with Millie Boyd explains the significance of the site:

milli boyd [nee Williams]

See they’re three sisters those – there’s Wollumbin, Mebbini, Byorgini that Nimbin Mountain.  That‘s my mothers’s mother’s mountain.  That’s Byorgini and in the middle that’s Mebbini and Wollumbin in the front, like that, you can see it. That’s Mebbini, that story came from here, from Mt Brown, you know where all the birds got together and spoke their lingo and this big bird came up and frightened them. They was talking Gullyval, Muli, Gidabal.  Magpie flew somewhere else.  Parrot flew down there to Evans Head, that’s how thee came to be Bundjalung.  And the wounded parrot flew back right near Lismore out to Casino, you see a gully there,  they reckon the waters blood there, red, where he settled.  And Turkey flew back there, wounded.  That’s why Mt. Warning got that little bend in his neck.  That’s why that National Park,  they look after it very well.

Wollumbin,  that’s a wild turkey.  He flew from Mount Brown to Mount Warning and he stood right on the point and he was wounded on the head with a spear.  That’s why there’s a little point there on the top,  you take good notice today when we get down there.  Yeerin’s there,  that’s where the fairies come from.  He carried the gold there,  right on the point….[Milli sings the song Wollumbin]

Below is the actual Australian National Parks and Wildlife site registration of Wollumbin

Mt Warning Rego #2 of 2

and here is the original recording that Creamer made of Mrs Milli Boyd telling him the significance of Wollumbin and associated sites within the Ngarakbal and Githabal areas……”Biorgini”- Blue Knob, Mt Burrell – Wind Spirit….”Mebbini, Momoli” – Lofts Pinnacle -Eaglehawk….and “Wullumban” , Wollumbin – Turkey

This is just one of many audio files made by Howard Creamer that explain how the Birds gave the Ngarakbal Githabal their Language, Lore and Land…I will be uploading more in the future …so stay tuned or subscribe to my newsletter [its free] and you will automatically receive my posts in your email……..Hoo-Roo

Transcontinental Skin Lore commences in Ngarakbal Githabal Country

The ‘Kidjabal’ or Githabul ‘Skin’ are the traditional cultural marriage clan of the Ngarakbal…This ancient ancestral lore begins with Landscape Creator Spirit journeys, starting from the Tweed Coast and traveling across the continent,  linking to all the ancestral countries of this vast ancient continent…each cultural block holds the lore within its own ancestral landscape and does not encroach beyond the territorial boundaries of another tribal country .

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There are several important Song lines ‘holding’ the Dreaming of ancestral creator journeys commencing from the most eastern most point of the Tweed Caldera, in Ngarakbal lands ….This oral [linguistic] Bootheram [Dreaming lore] links the ancestral names of natural features [places].  The right names  has profound meaning to the ancestral Aboriginal people because Bootheram is ‘sung’ [linguistically]…. Thus Spiritual Lore is dependant on the faithful maintenance of the original linguistics of the local area…. Lore, Land and Language are LINKED by and through the Bootheram [Dreaming] and must never be changed.

The ancestral Ngarakbal creators sites and the traditional lore’s and customs which govern these, all sit within the landscape of the Wollumbin Volcano; and the Githabal’s creator sites, along with their traditional lore’s and customs sit within their ancestral lands of the Main Range/Focal Peak Volcano….these two tribal volcano’s lore’s are linked by the ancestral beings traveling journey of creation …and this same system of totemic site and skin association is repeated throughout the Yoocum Yoocum and in turn flows out across the vast Australia continent…..its perfect native biological science…..but more on that later

THE BIRD TRIBES – LORE LAND & LANGUAGE ARE LINKED

The Totemic Ngarakbal and Githabal sites are [naturally] named with Ngarakbal and Githabal’s dialect linguistics…This ancient language identifies the names of the totemic ancestral creators…the names of  the ‘Skin’s…the names from the Bootheram [Dreaming Lores] …

Lore, Language and Land are linked…and should never be changed.

“The Birds gave us our language….. We are the Bird Tribes”….Marlene Boyd – Ngarakbal

Oceania Early Discoveries

Claiming by Renaming

Contemporary Academics have stealthily placed the Ngarakbal into an administrative pidgeonholed dialect classification of the ‘Bundjalung’…and refer to it as a Nation….when culturally Bundjalung [proper] was a tribal clan of the Widgibil.

There is NO Evidence within the early Ethno-historical records  to support the contemporary governance concept of a cultural bloc now promoted as ‘BUNDJALUNG NATION’ being associated with this area of Australia,  or of a Tribal group known as the BUNDJALUNG ever having any access or ‘rights’ to either the Ngarakbal or it’s marriage clan the Githabal Tribal Estates.

The incorrect placement of the Ngarakbal and it’s associated moieties has caused much unneeded confusion, frustration and suffering within the communites…but it has a foundation of political law that was used to claim the Continent of Australia…

This commenced when Major Thomas Mitchell the first surveyor General of NSW, under orders from the Crown to establish a claim of proprietorship over the then most distance and elusive parts of the continent was ordered to do on land what Captain James Cook had done from the sea…to go out and map and NAME all the major geographical features…

Mapping and naming were the prerequisite functions, before the action of tilling the soil, for the British to legally claim this continent. And so Mitchell went out to map and name and thus takes legal possession of the continent of Australia. The crown gave explicate orders for the Aboriginal names to be used…it did this for the very important legal reason of establishing TENURE over Terra Nullus, the unclaimed east coast of New Holland, as Australia was then known.

Major Thomas Mitchell the first surveyor General of NSW
Major Thomas Mitchell the first surveyor General of NSW

As Mitchell stated…..“The great convenience in using native names is obvious…so long as any of the Aborigines can be found in the neighbourhood…future travellers may verify my map.  Whereas new names are of no use in this respect…..”…..

Thus by using the Aboriginal names…the British could prove their legal tenure over the lands….and more importantly it was a subtle way of partially satisfying the need to claim moral proprietorship over an alien land with pre-existing occupiers…by naming places with their Aboriginal name,  the British were taking the Aboriginal name for their own just as they were taking the land for their own…Similarly the taking of Aboriginal names deepened those links to the new landscape while at the same time according a superficial respect to the Aborigines who’s name it was…[D Day – Claiming A Continent 2003]

Today the same thing is happening…the UN is [seemingly] funding the renaming of Australian geographical place names…and this process appears to be now dispossessing the British [Crown] tenure of Australia by selling off the crown properties; and further dispossess ancestral Aboriginal moieties by using the Aboriginal Lands Councils against them in much the same process as the Native Police was used before.

Created in 1848 the Native Police were a typical product of ruthless frontier pragmatism.  The aim was simple:  set an Aboriginal person to kill an Aboriginal person…..Mathews; Landscapes of Change Vol1: Ch4:21

To hasten this claim to legal proprietorship of the continent the crown and the parliament gave the order for the Native Police Magistrates to collect the language and names of the sites in the region…the Native Police had been sent to operate in the Tweed and Woodenbong cross border regions from 1849….for 30 years, until 1879, the Native Police had one order…to disperse the Aboriginals, for the coming of the pioneer settler [and enforce the proprietorship of the crown over the gold fields]. …But more on that later….

 

Transcontinental Songline begins in Ngarakbal Githabal Country

Creative journeys abound in  Aboriginal Mythology. Two cross the Australian continent & begin from ‘Cugin’ [Cudgen] in the ancestral lands of the Ngarakbal Githabal moieties….

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The following Bootheram is called the Fairy Emu Dreaming and is one of several ‘Bootherams [Dreaming Lores] about the totemic journey of the ancestor creator spirits across the land.  It was recorded from Charlotte Brown in the 1950’s…….Charlotte Brown was the Ngarakbal wife of Githabal man Euston Williams…

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The Fairy Emu Dreaming

…”….A big rock stands in the sea six miles from Byron Bay

A man named Nguthungulli made that rock. Nguthungulli is our Father.

He’s the Father of the whole world.

He’s the man we’ve got to be afraid of.

No matter what we do wrong, or where we do it, He’ll know.

 And no man has seen Him.

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“….Nguthungulli had a cave in the rock.  After he made the rock, he told the four fairy woman, ‘gilarmavell’, to stay there…”.

“….Then he went away from there and walked inland from the coast.  He traveled over the mountains with his dog Korung.  He had a walking stick, and when he put the stick into the ground He left behind a stone like a basin..”…..

…”As he traveled He left the bean-trees, and He named the different places on His journey.  He named Woodenbong [where we are now], Nguthumbung.”

“He went over the range to the head of the Condamine.  When he knelt down at the river to drink, He left his handprints there in the stone…”…….

“….Nguthungulli went away out into the desert, towards the sunset.  In our language we say that Nguthungulli is away out in the Borrgorr now that means the sea. …”…..

“…The old people knew that the sea was out there.  They knew that whichever way the butheram, the story of Nguthungalli went, it was towards the sea, Borrgorr.  You can hear the sound of the sea in that word.  They had seen then that we were on an island.”……….

“….Nguthungulli has big rocks in the Borrgorr,  the sea, where he lives today.  Out in the caves in those rocks in the sea, Nguthungulli has four daughters and one son.  And his son is called Yar Birrain…”….

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 Ngarakwal [Yoocum] Totemic Lore as told by Charlotte Williams [nee Brown] of the Ngarakwal Githabal moieties – East Coast Australia……The name Yar Birrain has several meanings , one of which is “First Light”….The summit of this sacred Mountain [known as Mt Warning] is the first land in Australia to receive the dawn rays of ‘Mother Sun’….

 

Seven Sisters Dreaming Lore [Bootheram] in Ngarakbal/Githabal country

This is a Dreaming [Bootheram] that is referring to marriage Lores…Right ‘Skin’ marriage is an intrinsic part of the traditional Lore and Culture of all    Aboriginal peoples.
Seven sisters, who were called the Warweenggary and who were members of the Bunjellung tribe, once lived on the Clarence River in New South Wales. These girls were all very clever and inside their yam sticks they had secret charms which protected them from their enemies.

Wiangaree Forest - Border Ranges

Above is a 1970’s map of the Tweed Valley showing Mt Warning [Wollumbin] on the right and the Wiangarie State Forest on the left….The Wiangarie Forest was renamed as ‘Lost World Border Ranges National Park in the early 1990’s….The area to the west is the major catchment for the Clarence River’s headwaters located in the Githabal ancestral lands 

 

The Bootheram Continues…….

Each day, while the Warweenggary Sisters were hunting carpet snakes in the bush, they carried their yam sticks with them for protection. A young man named Karambil was very much in love with one of the girls and always followed them. The seven sisters tried to discourage his romantic inclinations, because they were all his tribal sisters and therefore any association with Karambil would be punished severely under tribal Law. Karambil however would not be deterred as he was obsessed with the beautiful young girl; one day, having hidden in the bush while the sisters were out walking, he came upon the young girl he desired most when she did not have her yam stick with her. He was therefore able to carry her off to his own camp.

The other Warweenggary sisters were furious when they found that she was missing, and decided to punish Karambil for his crime. They journeyed far into the west where they found the winter and they sent back frost and exceptionally severe weather to the camp where Karambil and the girl were living. The girl did not feel the terrible cold because her sisters had managed to send her charmed yam stick to her by a secret messenger and she was therefore protected. Karambil however shivered and suffered severely and finally sent his wife back to her own people. The seven sisters then decided that they should not cause any more hardship to the remaining people in the tribe by the severe cold so they travelled far into the east, where they found the summer, and sent the warm rays of the sun back to melt the frost and ice.

The Warweenggary then left the earth altogether and travelled into the sky, where the constellation known as the Pleiades still represents their camp. They can be seen every summer and they bring with them pleasant warm weather, after which they gradually disappear towards the west.

After the departure of the Warweenggary, Karambil looked far and wide for another wife, this time determined to comply with the marriage rules of his people. He found a young woman who belonged to the Kooran section, a beautiful young girl whom he wished to marry. Unfortunately, she was already married to a man named Bullabogabun, a great warrior. Although Karambil succeeded in seducing her and taking her away from her husband, when Bullabogabun discovered that his wife had eloped he followed Darambil in a great fury. In order to escape his pursuer, Karambil climbed a huge pine tree which grew near his camp and hid amongst the topmost branches. Bullabogabun, however, gathered all the wood he could find and piled it into a heap at the base of the tree. He set fire to the sticks and burnt the pine tree to cinders. As the flames reached high into the air, Karambil was carried with them far into the sky, where he remains today near the Warweenggary as the star Alpha Tauri, and he now follows the sisters eternally, just as he did in his youth……

extract from R.H Mathews

The Seven Sisters Bootheram begins in Widgabal [Wadjie] Women’s Lore and travels up the ancient Clarence pathway to meet with the other marriage clans in the Winagarie Forests of Tyalgum and the Border Ranges…passing through the Rainbow Serpents Abode & Ancient Hoop Pine forests

Aunty Elaine Turnbull – Widgabal Elder  Senior ‘Wadjie’ Lore Woman [Bundjalung Tribe Proper]
Aunty Elaine Turnbull – Widgabal Elder
Senior ‘Wadjie’ Lore Woman [Bundjalung Tribe Proper]
The younger sister of Lorraine Mafi Williams, and the daughter of Rev. Bill Turnbull,   Aunty Elaine Turnbull, is one of our most respect and knowledgeable Senior Lore Keepers, one of our Living Treasures..

Her older sister Lorraine Mafi Williams is pictured below….

LMW photos (2)…’…Our Rainbow Serpent Dreaming is the oldest continuous documented religious theme in the world…over 60,000 years plus of Matrilineal Lore.. .’…Lorraine Mafi Williams- Widgabal – Bundjalung proper