Tag Archives: transcontinental

Crushing the Head of the Rainbow Serpent

Before there was a line on a map separating the Tweed, Byron and Gold Coast regions of Australia, before occupation , this area was the northern block of the original ‘Yoocum-Yoocum’ ancestral estate…some of the most coveted and prestigious real estate on the entire continent of Australia….A beautiful location, with a dark secret…

This specific east coast location was strategically chosen as the state borders of New South Wales and Queensland  by the Commonwealth forefathers to effectively ‘divide and conquer’ the Yoocum-Yoocum Aboriginal moiety through administration’– deftly eradicating their old world lore’ by drawing a line on a map where no line had ever been before ……Right through the very beginning of the Rainbow Serpent Culture of Australia…effectively crushing the head of the serpent, and creating a domino effect dispersing the Skinlore, Kinships and ‘connections-to-country’ right the way across the continent with one killer blow.

All Skinlore, Kinships and connections-to-country are derived from Origine’ Rainbow Serpent Culture, which unfurls in the heavens [above] the ancestral estates and is mirrored into each respective estates landscape [below]….. A pure unadulterated stream of culture that refreshes and revives, this same system inalienably connecting people to place through lore, land and language as old as time…

Showing connection-to-country from the celestial vault was how native title was first established by Eddie Mabo in the High Court….

Mabo spoke about the land and the stars ….the lore…revealing Malo’s lore (the law of the land) and the law of the Stars of the Tagai (the lore of the heavens) to show how his moieties tribal Skinlore, Kinships and connections to ancestral country gave his people their inalienable rights to tenure over their lands, and that they be acknowledged and returned…and they were.

However, since the success of Mabo – over-turning the law of Terra-Nullus – well, since that time, to thwart other Origine’ claimants the governance systems have employed all manner of administrative manipulations…perpetuating a  dark secret of dispossession and genocide in order for the commonwealth law to retain control in the land down-under.

History has been sanitised – books written, reports published and films funded promoting the ‘sanitised commonwealth history’….. Geospatial evidence- cadastral land maps [which get utilised in the native title court process] have been altered – mountains have been renamed, place names have been wrongfully attributed to appropriated linguistics, and revealing anthropological reports edited……

All and any pro-Rainbow Serpent Culture collated pre and post colonisation has been targeted and ‘buried’;  and apical ancestors and their traditional songs have been allowed to be procured by ‘strangers’ and corporations with no honouring of ancestral rites of passage….Adulterated documents  are being utilised in court processes endorsed by autocratic administration to extinguish native title of the continents first peoples.

beginning of the Queensland , New South Wales state borders – Coolangatta Tweed Heads – gazetted  through sacred serpent sites

It’s shocking, witnessing the methodical eradication of the matristic Rainbow Serpent Culture – Equally shocking is the autocratic enforcement of a contemporary Bundjalung migration story about a ‘climate catastrophe’ – the Three Brothers – replacing Rainbow Serpent prehistoric lore……A despotic governance blatantly using people from out-of-country to administrate these contemporary fables and sign off on extinguishment agreements.

Genocide and Apartheid [by pen] – in 2018 in Australia…..

But how can this be?

Easy!…Utilise administration to sanitise history just like every other invasion and occupation before……and hope that no-one will remember in a few generations.

Reversing Mabo’s legal legacy of federal native title rights and recognition they started to amend, amend, amend….slicing and dicing the newly ratified FEDERAL Native Title laws into malleable  STATE native title acts and regulations which bear no credence to Mabo’s trailblazing efforts……

These butchered State Native Title Acts create an impenetrable ‘wall”; operated by state native title services bodies that purportedly ‘provide legal aid’ to native title applicants [complements of the very same commonwealth the applicants are taking to court]…… no conflict of interest there…HA!…

Having spent decades and millions creating a most gruesome bureaucratic beast in native title, alongside a secret and even more sinister monster – State Aboriginal Lands Council law – Now all Australians are being secretly repressed. The country sold out.

But how can this be?

Easy….! Create an alternative legislative pathway.

Local Aboriginal Lands Councils [LALCs] have been given the same power as Municipal Shire Councils, but they are NOT representative of blood-line to country Traditional Owners…This is because any Origine’ person from anywhere in Australia can move to a new state or shire area and join the lands council there…they don’t have to be from that area originally, and once a member they can vote on outcomes affecting the new area……just as anyone else who  moves into a new shire becomes part of that municipal shire and is able to vote….there is absolutely no blood-line descent of the ancestral tribe required for membership to either shire council system….but, only Aboriginal people can join an LALC.

NSW Lands Dept map – showing the original Mount Wollumbin location BEFORE Geographical Names Board alteration , to claim Mount Warning exclusively as Bundjalung Nation 

Local Aboriginal Lands Councils [LALCs] AGM’s are won by individuals whose family can get the most members at the meeting…… This allows larger family groups in the community to guide how the LALC makes decision and the outcomes of that area. …..Take a drive in your local land council boundary and having a look who is better off may surprise you……. Generally, it seems that traditional owners, native title claimants and native title holders who live in those LALC boundaries are worse off…….The system pits native title claimants AGAINST LALC members….classic apartheid processes 

Of course the bureaucrats don’t actually let the Origine’ peoples [actually] control their aboriginal lands councils….When they need a specific outcome they [historically] sack everyone, claiming them incompetent, and put bureaucrat administrators in place …then they amend, amend, amend, the LALC’s legal acts and regulations so they can transfer thousands of crown and public properties into the LALC coffers ready to do lands deals and ILUAs – Indigenous Land Use Agreement

So ‘abracadabra’, a covert system that serves as an alternative legislative pathway to launder [the Australian people’s public lands and resources]; a system which has no onus for disclosure to the public magically appears…..it is Australia’s Hidden Apartheid – and it effectively dispossesses EVERYONE ……. except the bureaucrats….. And it achieves all this whilst simultaneously facilitating extinguishment of native title……

It’s utterly, brilliant diabolical genius …and truly mindboggling that individuals could have turned their minds and skills to crafting such [legal] instruments of mass destruction….knowingly eradicating what is arguably the oldest continuously surviving matristic law on the planet and replacing it with a relatively new biblical doctrine – all to validate colonial occupation.

A documented example of this type of stylised genocidal bureaucracy occurred in Yoocum-Yoocum lands south of the Gold Coast border….it might seem simply a government commissioned report being deliberately ignored….and what’s new about that?…but the consequences are reverberating  across time.

Anthropological materials commissioned and submitted to the Federal Court by the New South Wales Native Title Services in relation to the Byron Bay Bundjalung People [NTDA# NG6010/98 [NC95/01] & #3 N6020/01 [NC01/08] by Dr Frank McKeown of McKeown Ygoa & associates – in his report McKeown quotes Archibald Metson.

Archibald Metson

Archibald Metson was a colonial administrator and ethnologist from the late 1800’s.  In 1894 he was commissioned to investigate the conditions of Aboriginals in the newly gazetted state of Queensland; despite his consequent proposals, only some of his ideas were embodied in the Aboriginal Protection and Restrictions of the Sale of Opium Act 1897……. And I should point out that Mr Meston was also the Southern Protector of Aboriginals for the state of Queensland from 1898 to 1903,…..and equally important,  Metson had spent his childhood in the region , growing up on a farm in the upper Clarence and visited the Tweed Byron area , including in 1870 and 1880 when he travelled through the region on foot and on horseback …But the point is that Archibald Metson , over a 30 year period,  recorded that the aboriginal population of the area spoke a dialect of the language called Yoocum-Yoocum, which he had learnt as a child while growing up in the Clarence 

The Extract from page 21 of the McKeown Report [Bannister 1984, Metson 1880, 1923: McKeown 2005] created for New South Wales Native Title Services and provide to the federal court states;

“I spoke the Yoocum-Yoocum dialect which extended from the Logan River South to midway between the Clarence and Bellinger River, and all New England from Armidale to near Warwick, whence it was joined by the Wacca-Wacca of the Darling Downs, the dialect which came down the north side of the Brisbane River to the sea and Toorbul Point and down the Burnett to the sea at Bundaberg”..Metson 1923

“All the Tribes from Nerang to the Clarence spoke variations of the great “Yoocum-Yoocum” dialect [Yoocumbah], which went west to New England and down the head of the Condamine at Warwick, where it joined the Wacca-Wacca of the Darling Downs”….Metson 1894 

Then ; Page’s 87-98 of the McKeown report [which you must remember was submitted as evidence to the Australian Federal Court by the New South Wales Native Title Services in relation to the Byron Bay Bundjalung People] also quotes Anthologist Radcliffe-Brown [1918,1929A, 1929B,1930] who refers to these same people as the Yukum or Yukumbil

“This large tribe, named in its negative [yukum=no] occupying the region of the Richmond and Clarence Rivers in the north of NSW and extending over the Qld Border.  Their country extends about 100 miles north and south and about 80- miles east and west.  Within the north there are considerable local differences in dialect, and a number of the sub-tribes are recognised.  The sub-tribe about which I have the most information is the Kidjabal [Githabul] of the country at the head of the Clarence River”…Radcliffe Brown 1929A:400

McKeown notes in his report that Radcliffe-Browns publications and unpublished field notes deal primarily with Githabul groups in the upper Clarence around Woodenbong, and mentions only in passing the “Minyanbal” sub-tribe [Radcliffe-Brown 1930:238]….. In his field notes there appears only one reference to Byron Bay, but it is unclear to what he is referring.  On the same page, he notes the presence of a “mob of Minyangbal at Tweed Heads”, and immediately below wrote “Ngarabal from Tweed Heads to Brunswick” McKeown 2005 : 89…….

This clear [and way to truthful] anthropological report was commission by the government department who were assisting the federal court to determine a decision – and it was not ‘helpful’ to creating the ‘required’ extinguishment of native title in Byron Bay at all – so, it was ignored.

All applicants who were identifying as ancestral Yoocum-Yoocum subtribes, like Ngarakbal were targeted and ostracised, and almost immediately the exclusive endorsement of Bundjalung as being the [endorsed] language commenced…..

Yoocum-Yoocum Rainbow Serpent Lore was quashed and the Bundjalung Nation myth unfurled…

But why?

To ensure the tenure of Australia remained with the Commonwealth and no land was actually returned to the Origine moieties, the bureaucracy’s concept of a ‘Bundjalung Nation’s’ legal authenticity needed to be accepted in the courts

But how would they do this?…

Easy!… by garnering the assistance of Local Aboriginal Lands Councils, whom anyone that identifies as aboriginal  can join; and enlisting community history and museum volunteers to provide ‘research ‘from [non-academic] government endorsed sources such as newspaper clippings; and then begin  subtlety  ‘tweaking’ the language attributions [acknowledgements] of local Geographical place names records to align with newly collated and created Bundjalung Nation language dictionaries…All funded by the state …….and hey presto – qualify that all [legal] lands records data and place names were homogenised [and reclassified] as being from Bundjalung Nation linguistics…….Wiping out all original tribal attributions from the geospatial records and creating an unfair advantage that ensured extinguishment of native title….

Geytenbeek 1971 – dialect map- Ian Fox 2003

Re-writing History – a tried and true method to validate occupation.

An extract from the introduction of the Margaret Sharpe Dictionary of Western Bundjalung, including Gidhabal and Tabulam Bundjalung, has been cited extensively to alter geographical place names and homogenise original individual dialect attributions in both Queensland and New South Wales …this one dictionary effectively altering Lands records data collated by numerous academics over a span of 90 years.

The extract in the Introduction of the dictionary states …….“Dialects of the language referred to by linguists as Bandjalang [or as spelt in English Bunjalung] were spoken in an area including the Northern Rivers area of NSW, the Gold Coast, north to the southern suburbs of Brisbane, and west to Warrick and Allora”

So, put simply what does all this mean?…..

The genocide of the Rainbow Serpent Culture and its replacement with a post-flood migration story to achieve extinguishment of native title.

Altering the geographical data, or lands records, language attributions was key to obstructing Federal Court Native Title Claims…..Significantly  because the original geographical place names attributions had been recorded in each original [individual] tribal dialect of each area when first surveyed in the 1880’s……

Ironically, those individual dialect records were precisely the legal evidence Origine’ owners required to achieve a positive determination of Native Title…..

GNB dual naming of mt Warning as Bundjalung
2006 Letter from the Geographical Names Board – the NSW State Government had gazetted the wrong mountain as Wollumbin and changed the original linguistic attribution to Bundjalung . Altering Lands Records to enact genocide – by pen  

By allowing naive volunteers to make metadata submissions for geographical name changes of significant landscape features to State departments, which then became endorsed, gazetted and recorded by State government in the parliamentary Hansard and lands records files, protected the government from [actual] involvement –  but the outcome was to achieve the desired effect – dispossess ancestral moieties,  pervert the natural course of justice, and  facilitates State government ILUAs which culminates in the  extinguishment of federal native title …….

But, how these are altered Lands Records used in native title?

Well, the first national park in Australia to be created under an Indigenous Land Use Agreement (ILUA) with the traditional owners, the Byron Bay Bundjalung, as joint managers with the National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) occurred in Yoocum-Yoocum ancestral lands in 2001 – State government created the brand  ‘new’ Arakwal National Park and the Bundjalung myth allowed state government to   extinguish Native Title and award a development ILUA to the Byron Bay Bundjalung Corporation…the first agreement of its kind in Australia, it worked so successfully this same process has swept across Australia.


Now, Ancestral Truth is being ignored again….the Government is trying to assimilate the whole of the Gold Coast region into this same created Bundjalung Nation…….the dark secrets spreading….

Margaret Sharpes dictionary introduction states …….“Dialects of the language referred to by linguists as Bandjalang [or as spelt in English Bunjalung] were spoken in an area including the Northern Rivers area of NSW, the Gold Coast, north to the southern suburbs of Brisbane, and west to Warrick and Allora”


The modus operandi?……. crush the head of the [Rainbow] Serpent by leaving  no ‘flicker’ of the Yoocum-Yoocum Cultural block  to smoulder….. in fact, since the Byron Bay ILUA was signed in 2001 a veritable wildfire, spreading this [created] contemporary administration propaganda ‘marketed’ to the world as the Bundjalung ‘Nation’, has exploded into a bonfire fed by the bureaucrats……with the Byron Bay ILUA 2 and the Ti-Tree Lake ILUA 3 signed in 2006- all without including the descendants of the apical Ngarakbal ancestors who’s traditional cultural and intellectual copyright they appropriated without consent…..

Lorraine Mafi- Williams protector of ancestral women’s Rainbow Serpent Lore was targeted and ostracised due to the systematic injustices created by the government systems

The sole goal of State Native Tile is to extinguish the inalienable rights of ancestral moieties ….and anyone who [stupidly] engages is legally extinguished and so too are all descendants of the people they claim to be representing……so, if a total stranger appropriates your great great grandparents culture and endorses it [to be changed] and then files a native title claim over your moieties ancestral country, well, whether you like it or not, your inalienable right is automatically extinguished too….

Today, the Yoocum-Yoocum bloodline are still being lied to, cheated, dispossessed and exploited….the bureaucracy is knowingly homogenising all of the ancestral culture in line with an ‘endorsed’ three brother migration story….

The Three Brothers is an appropriated Yoocum-Yoocum tribal migration story of arrival of another race in their lands after a great flood, and which [it’s no surprise] endorses the ‘biblical tenure’ of the great southern land just as the biblical story of the three sons of Noah was utilised to validate tenure, and extinguish inalienable rights over the tribal lands of Africa, Asia and pagan Europe in the medieval past…..

Seems that ‘old- style’ genocide by papal pen worked so well that’s its good enough for the federal courts of Australia now….


Please share this with as many people as you can – its the truth

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Matristic Origine Dreamtime Lore – part 1

eye of biamie

The Origine cultures of Australia are the oldest living cultures in the world….and the last unbroken Matristic cultures on the planet…….

Matristic Lore is neither patriarchal or matriarchal , but instead is derived from the ancient nomadic traditions which honoured both sacred masculine and scared feminine for their own essential qualities….qualities ‘gifted’ to them from the celestial realms from which all life descends

One of the reasons the Origine have survived for so long is their ability to live in harmony with the grand celestial cycles which impact our solar system and planet. The Origine people’s ability to adapt to change has allowed them to maintain their ancestral traditions unbroken since the Alcheringa, which is the Ngarakbal Githabul dialect for  ‘the beginning’ of the dreamtime.

Commencing on the east coast of Australia the ancient matristic lore of the Origine Dreamtime radiates across the continent.  Spiralling from the south celestial pole the ancestral creator beings rise one by one in the Australia skies in the unending celestial particle dance of All Creation.  Refreshing and recreating the journeys of the Sky Ancestors which birthed our solar system including this small blue planet we all call ‘home’.

For the past 200 years, since invasion, the spirituality of the Origine culture has been deemed primitive and incapable of supporting genuine religious life. Messianic Christianity undermined Origine spirituality in the belief that the Origine had been living in darkness prior to the advent of the church in their lives.   As a result the Origine people found themselves the victims of cultural genocide.  Their traditions and beliefs swept aside without treaties to protect them, without even official acknowledgement of their humanity until the 1967 civil rights recognitions. And still the systemic dispossession of the ancestral traditional lore’s and customs continues today, despite many voices calling for its preservation and perpetual protection.  The oppression and disenfranchising of the Origine peoples continues in an attempt by contemporary [patriarchal] corporate governance to maintain tenure of the rich and abundant resources of the great southern land….a pattern of administrative governance inherited from Rome and used all over the contemporary world today.

All administrative governance is derived from the Roman church doctrines…..all law.

These Roman laws are exclusively patriarchal and have no inclusion of the feminine to balance and sustain the earth in accordance with natural lore…..and so everything and everyone are subjected to entropic decay – and a dying planet

On the flip side the ancient natural lore, commencing with the All Mother, who is terrestrially defined in Australia as the Tweed Caldera Volcano, the most eastern land form of the southern continent, and it still holds  the embers of the last fire of the ancestral matristic lore – a fractal lore of increase rights and obligations which once encircled and unified the entire planet …..even now this last fire battles from being extinguished as a result of patriarchal law processes…. and erased from the face of the earth just as the Romans encompassed all of the ancient ‘goddess’ religions of the globe.

However, today, science is validating the profound truths of the wisdom held within the ancestral matristic lores essence.  Academic researchers and historians are piecing together the surviving fragments of cultural heritage and working with Origine Wisdom Keepers to reignite the fires of traditional lore and culture of the matristic lineages of Australia in peace and harmony with all nations for the greater good…..the Vision – to rebuild a new global paradigm of community and love for all, from the embers of the old matristic lore.  A lore that encompasses and acknowledges the sacred connectedness of every life force and form sharing this precious orb, together….

One Earth. One Sky. One Lore

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The Feathered Serpent Traditions – Carpet Snake Clans of The Bird Tribes

The Ngarakbal Githabal peoples are part of the once vast ‘Yoocum Yoocum’ Moiety….. These ancient peoples are the East Coast ‘Custodians’ of the Feathered Serpent Traditions [or, Bird Tribe Lore] which is intrinsically linked to The Seven Sister ‘Skin’ Lore of the Rainbow Serpent…..the most ancient religion on the planetsnake

The Yoocum Yoocum are the large ‘Cultural Block’ of one of the most densely populated regions of the Australian Continent before invasion by the Crown… and, despite the aggressive invasion of the East Coast, the ancestral lore survived….it’s a wonderful thing that it did, for these people hold ancient lore that is the last piece of the puzzle to unifying many of the ancient global mysteries.

The Ngarakbal Githabal peoples are descendants of the “Carpet-snake clans” of Australia…..Their Carpet-snake [water-snake] Lore traditions and culture come from the ‘Alcheringa’ – the distant ancient ‘Dreamtime’ past….These traditions once traversed the island continent….the origin of the Rainbow Serpent Lore

300px-RainbowSerpentThe Rainbow Serpent is a most important Ancestral Being within the Yoocum Yoocum and associated aligned moieties across Australia…It governs every facet of their ‘Skin’ Marriage Lore’s of Creation and Fertility – the spiral of Birth, Death and Rebirth….Their Central Spirituality governing the ‘Cycles of all Life’…The Rainbow Serpent is intrinsically interwoven with the ‘Skin’ Marriage Lore of the Seven Sisters – Arguably the oldest Religion on the Planet…

…’…Our Rainbow Serpent Dreaming is the oldest continuous documented religious theme in the world…over 60,000 years of Women’s Lore…’…..Lorraine Mafi Williams- Widgabal – Bundjalung proper

The Lore’s begin with landscape creator journeys from the coast of the Wollumbin Caldera – the most easterly point of the ancient Australian continent – and the Lores come from the ‘Alcheringa’….This word – ‘Alcheringa’, and the Rainbow Serpent Lore, and the Seven Sisters, feature in the regional dialects of other ancestral estates across the continent….but, these traditions are not in every Aboriginal culture….Some have been replaced due to ancient invasions and wars of the distant past – They have different beliefs – creators, ancestors and cultural values – the same as different religions have spread around the planet throughout time….

The Alcheringa [Lore] once travelled right across Australia…It has been recorded as part of ‘skin’ marriage lore in several ancestral regions, including the eastern cultural blocks of the Wakka Wakka, the Gubbi Gubbi, the central New South Wales Komilaroi, and also the Urabunna and Arunta peoples in the red centre of the continent…There are also regions of the west coast moieties in the Pilbara – but the Alcheringa is certainly not limited to just these…as with all ancestral Lore, within each specific ancestral estate and with each ones specific language, the sacred sites to commemorate the ancestors creation journey are maintained and utilised by the ‘custodial’ clans…joining the creation ‘songs’ together, much like pearls on a necklace, makes the ‘songline’….and many of these ‘songlines’ are governed by celestial bodies – the transits of stars.

The east coast in Ngarakbal Githabal country is the beginning of the Alcheringa – marked by a ‘djurebil’ [sacred site] that is located high in the rainforest mountains, in the aquifer watershed of the two east coast volcano’s…This djurebil [sacred site] was created by the Carpet Snake Clan ancestors….the Carpet-snake clans are the oldest clan on the continent…the ancient ones….

The Alcheringa creation ‘songline’ travels from ancient geological sites now submerged beneath the waves of the eastern Pacific Ocean – from the distant past when the sea water was locked in ice and the land extended out much farther than it does today ….but the djurebil remains…and weaves to the west – as serpents do…it is the pathway of the Rainbow Serpent ancestor, making the water paths within the geological features as it travels….

big buggram and little buggram
Big Bootheram on the left [background] and little Bootheram, snaking up on the right [foreground]
Rainforest ridges, Mountains in their own right, once named ‘little’ and ‘big’ Buggram [Bootheram] are divided by a deep gorge that the Rainbow Serpent gouged on its journey…after creating Little and Big Bootheram it travels up – higher than Wollumbin [Mount Warning] – higher than Julgumboong [Mount Lindsay]…it creates a great Plateau “Dhungura-ngarian”, which the white man named Lamington Plateau and traveling on to Mount Worendo, where it creates a series of waterfall cascades that plunge down through the rainforest…it is there, high in the remote rugged Macpherson Ranges, of the Caldera’s rim that the highest waterfall is created…and it’s djuriebil name is ‘Alcheringa’….and it is the name of that waterfall still….

Alcheringa falls - Lamington Plateau
Alcheringa Falls – Lamington National Park

The Ancestral totemic ‘beings’ not only created the geological features and aquifer systems of the continent, but also carried and distributed objects which were the sources of ritual and tribal Lore as well as the sources of all forms of life, including the people themselves….

In the Bootheram of the ‘Alcheringa’ there exists a comparatively small number of individuals who were half human and half animal or half plant…The Ngarakbal Githabal say that these ancestors didn’t ‘come here’ but that they were ‘made here’…that they are the original Carpet-snake Clan’s…The Bootheram records them as being created by ‘God’- Babbarra is one Ngarakbal Githabal word for describing God …Duramulan is another…….

yowiesBootheram teaches that these half-human creatures were endowed with far greater powers than any living men or women now possess. They could walk about either on the earth or beneath it and could fly through the air….They were the children of ‘God’ and had inherited a portion of the qualities of their creator…they were themselves as ‘demi-gods’…and these ‘demi-gods’ are the ancestors of the existing totemic clans ….’Family’…Ancestors… Nimbinje as the Ngarakbal Githabal call them – or the “Hairy fellas”…the original clans – Carpet-snake totemic clans – they went all over the country, creating the djurebil…making them with sacred ceremonies, songs and dances for the people to enact throughout time….

carn - carpetsnake clan 1
Rainbow Serpent Djurebil site

The creation ancestors, in the act of ‘creating’, would leave deposits in the ground or in some natural feature such as a rock or a water pool, which transformed the site into a djurebil…and, high on the escarpment between the two volcano lands is one such carn of boulders, which was ‘made’ by the Rainbow Serpent…and, it is in this same area that the ‘Eelemarni Marriage Lore’ is deified…joining Ngarakbal to Githabal……All Bootheram Lores link together

So, what is Bootheram?

Bootheram is the Ngarakbal Githabal dialect name for the Dreamtime LORE…or LAW of all creation…Its Spiritual, complex and parallels numerous scientific disciplines

Northern hemisphere peoples (recently) developed numerical & alphabetical values to explain time and creation of this galaxy, this solar system and this planet…Bootheram explains the same thing…

Bootheram uses plants and animals and creation Heroes and Heroines metaphorically to denote each timeframe, for each creation sequence [epoch] and ‘holds’ it orally…through ceremonial songs, dances and sacred ritual at djurebil sites

Bootheram uses the landscape and the sky as the reference points of this creation lore….a living library…written into the land and mirrored in the sky, for all to see….indelible native science held in oral format…..And it is the Lore that Bootheram must NEVER be changed…

The sum total of the Bootheram of the Ngarakbal Githabal Feathered Serpent Traditions tells the complete history of the creation of the ‘universe’ beginning with 8 culture hero’s….It is obviously metaphoric and [naturally] linked to Bird Tribe Lore…..so, let’s look at one of the metaphoric Ancestral Creator Birds…..

Bootheram has many layers of meaning…and one such layer depicts (dreaming) timeframes…Oral lore for chronological markers of ‘Bird Tribe’ Mythology events….or, Totem as a Timeline……For example….One of the Landscape creation ancestors is the Turkey – ‘Woggun’ means Bush Turkey in Ngarakbal Githabal …and Woggun the Creation Ancestor Turkeys name is ‘Wollumbin’….Picture5

Mt Wollumbin is shaped like a Bush Turkey

‘National Landscape ©’ icon Mount Warning – Wollumbin – is a World Heritage listed Erosion Caldera – what we see today is the remnant volcanic plugs of a once vast Shield Volcano…the central plug of the caldera is, for the Ngarakbal Githabal , shaped like a Bush Turkey….Male Bush Turkeys build mounds….Shield Volcanoes are Mounds….it’s a metaphor…..’Bird Tribe’ creation Lore…..there are many more profound layers to it, but it’s not relevant to a cyber format

So…..In 1977 as part of the National Parks and Wildlife Aboriginal Site Survey of NSW, Ngarakbal Githabal ‘custodial knowledge holder’ Mrs Millie Boyd recorded the significance of Mt Warning with Howard Creamer, Anthropologist …Mrs Boyd had learnt this Feathered Serpent Lore from her Mother Charlotte Williams [nee Brown] …..Aunty Millie related the Bootheram [unchanged] of the Totemic Ancestral Birds gathering to ‘learn the lingo’ [Language]…..Then all flying from Mount Brown [which is located in the Richmond Range of Northern NSW]……….All the Birds fly from Mount Brown to claim, settle and name the ancestral tribal Totem sites in the ancient Yoocum Yoocum Landscape…….

“Turkey Flew to Mount Warning…’….Mrs Millie Boyd

Ok…so what’s the Metaphor of Feathered Serpents?

“….The birds are the Feathered Serpents, the descendants of the Goanna beings; and we are the descendants of the Bird Tribes who also come from this Bootheram… The Birds gave us our lore, land and language…. We are the Bird Tribes….”…..….Marlene Boyd – Ngarakbal Githabal – grand-daughter of Charlotte Williams…


When the Bootheram was being recorded western science hadn’t discovered that birds evolved out of dinosaurs….this has only come to light in the last decade….But the Ngarakbal Githabal descendants knew….they have always know…they ARE the Bird Tribe…..

Here is one of their Bootheram Lore’s from the Lamington Plateau of the Macpherson Ranges, which the Ngarakbal Githabal call “Dhungura-ngarian”…it was broadcast on radio in 1968 and published the same year….the ‘custodian’ relating this Bootheram was Mr James Morgan – who was another 1967 civil rights campaign “Hero of the people”….Like all the Bootheram, it sounds like a nice little story about animals…but it has profound layers….There are djurebil sites all around the ranges that were created by the ancestral Carpet -snake Clans to mark this important Bootheram…for this is the story of the first Corroboree ring….the very first one…it is a sacred story, and it must NEVER be changed


……..”In the time which is Bootharrum or the dreamtime there lived a pelican who played on a plateau.

The name of the plateau was Dhungura-ngarian, which means “where the Pelican Played”. The corroboree ring of the pelican was on the plateau of Dhungura-ngarian……”……

…”In the Bootharrum all the birds were the same colour but one day they decided that it would be much better if they were not all the same, so they painted themselves in different colours. From that time they have kept the colours they painted themselves on the plateau of Dhugura-ngarian…”..

“…The Crow painted himself black….The paint that he used was made from burnt bark of the Bloodwood tree”….

….”The parrots adorned themselves with bright paints of many colours. And all the birds chose the colours they liked best. Then the birds gathered together for a corroboree on the plateau of Dhungura-ngarian….”….

….”One day, Old Man Pelican, who was very fat, was walking away from the corroboree ring when he heard someone laughing.

“He turned around to see who was laughing and saw that it was the crow…”…

“…The crow was laughing at him, laughing at the way he walked because he was so fat….”…

….”Because the crow had laughed at him Old Man Pelican picked up a piece of the dullong and threw it at the Crow…..”…..

Picture27….”The piece of clay hit the Crow in the eye and to this day the white in the eye of the crow can be seen where Old Man Pelican hit him……”

If you would like to receive more posts like this one then subscribe to my newsletter [its free] and you will automatically receive them in your email….Hoo Roo


We ALL come from the Bird Tribes

“We are the Bird Tribes…We did not ‘come’ here, we were always here…we were ‘made ’here”. …Marlene Boyd    IMG_1066642208575158

Women are rarely mentioned in the Anthropological literature as owners of country in their own right or as decision making individuals; they appear as wives and mothers, their relationship to the Bootheram always mediated through another….but this is not always Traditional Lore way…

Millie Boyd was an exception to European patriarchal thinking, and so was her Mother Charlotte Williams [nee. Brown] because they maintained their ancestral lore traditions after invasion and in spite of European Authorities

I was very blessed to have known and worked with the late Mrs. Marlene Boyd….Charlotte Williams was her Grandmother…..Marlene was an amazing being. She loved her country – Ngarakbal country, the beautiful Tweed Caldera…..She told me about her Grandmother’s Bootheram, the Fairy Emu Dreaming….It’s a ‘traveling’ Bootheram – the transcontinental songline –  which commences in the Ngarakbal ancestral estate – first place to feel the dawn light of Mother Sun…..It tells the ‘Dreaming Lore’ of one of the Ngarakbal and Githabals supreme creation ancestor ‘Nguthungalli’ who walks towards the west creating the geological features of the landscape as he travels…..He ‘sings’ everything into existence…..


…”….A big rock stands in the sea six miles from Byron Bay

A man named Nguthungulli made that rock. Nguthungulli is our Father. He’s the Father of the whole world. He’s the man we’ve got to be afraid of. No matter what we do wrong, or where we do it, He’ll know. And no man has seen Him…”……Extract form the Fairy Emu Dreaming by Charlotte Williams [Brown]

Marlene Boyd spent a lot of time insisting to me that her people were always ‘here’……..”We did not come here, we were always here…We were made in the west….We are the bird tribes” she would state emphatically……and then she would ‘sing’….

The Boyd and Williams’s families and their relations are survivors of the crown invasion – post colonisation of Terrra Nullius….Australia – Ancient Island of the Bird Tribes which Marlene said was the origin of all the tribes upon the planet….

The whole Ngarakbal and Githabal community is extremely proud of who they are and what they represent….and deservedly so, for the Ngarakbal and Githabal descendants have always been involved at the ‘coalface’ of indigenous political, environmental and, indeed, scientific developments heaped upon then by government and the crown…..

But their association to this land is much, much older than when Capt. Cook sailed past Cape Byron and first sketched ‘Wollumbin’ and named it Mt Warning for the Crown to ‘claim’ Cooks Sketch Mt Warning 1770

on Tuesday the 15th of May 1770…..For their association goes way, back……into the Dreaming, which they call Bootheram…..way, way, way, back…..

.”The Bootheram is one continuous moment STRETCHED – across time and space”, Marlene told me…..”It’s made in the mountains. It’s made in the water….They can take our land, but they will never take our Bootheram”, she would say……She was a proudly Traditional Lore Woman from a very long line of the same, and even though we would be sitting in my beach shack [which had become the Ngarakbal/Nganduwal Aboriginal ‘office’], when she spoke her Lore, she meant business, and  the spirit of her ancestors came through her loud and clear……

Marlene was very ‘strong’ about who she was and who the Ngarakbal and Githabal are, and of their place within the ancestral tribes of this ancient continent, of which she insisted had always been ‘here’….…

“We are the Bird Tribes….We did not ‘come’ here, we were always here….We were ‘made’ here….”…when she said this she wasn’t just refereeing to Aboriginal Australians, no, she meant the global peoples – from “the time before time – way, way, way, back”….and she wasn’t the only one saying this either….

“They say we have been here 60,000 years. But it is much longer. We have been here since the time before time began … All other peoples of the world come from us.” ……Aboriginal Elder: Page 122 – “Voices of the First Day”

Marlene’s ancestors had been extensively studied by the scientific academics since colonial times and a great raft of research has been collated specifically about these families….one of those academic studies shows the blood sampling that was taken of her grandparents and great grandparents by the government of the early 1900’s….

Now, the Ngarakbal ancestral women’s ‘Skin Lore’ is Biological Genetics in Native Science….the basis of ‘Skin Lore’ determines ‘right way’ marriages, but is by no means limited to just that…like all Lore it has multi dimension facets and layers of meaning……It’s important to remember that an isolated island nation, like Australia, needed to be mindful of avoiding inter-relation marriages that could weaken the genetic strength and health of its people….and so the ‘Skin Lores’ govern that strictly…..it’s matrilineal descent recorded in totem of bloodline descent – through Grandmothers….much like MitochondrialDNA [MtDNA]…

Marlene was adamant that contemporary science was wrong….that, “the Aboriginal people didn’t walk out of Africa” and that it was actually the other way around…She insisted that the ‘Skin Lore’ would show that…..So, she got me to research the science and then we started lobbying government to use MtDNA in Native Title…The by-product of all this Science v’s ‘Skin lore’ was that she showed me, that what she was insisting appeared to be quiet valid….

The research found that in the last 20 years major advances had been made in the study of blood samples, and, interestingly, they directly challenge any supposed African link to Australia’s ancestral people, and dramatically extend the purported 60,000 years of occupation by ancestral tribes to a FAR, FAR GREATER timescale…this had occurred because of advances in cellular and molecular biology – genetics and their origins….To date, even the scientists who first established the “Out of Africa” theory have readdressed their own work and now concede that Australia appears to be the birthplace of ALL modern human beings….

Most notable of these scientists is Rebecca L. Cann, who is currently Professor in the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa…. Cann was the geneticist who made a scientific breakthrough on mitochondrial DNA variation and evolution in humans, popularly called ‘Mitochondrial Eve’….. Her initial discovery and theory was that all living humans are genetically descended from a single African mother who lived <200,000 years ago….this became the foundation of the Out of Africa theory, which she assisted in developing whilst  a doctoral student under the supervision of Dr. Alan Wilson, the then Professor of Biochemistry at the University of California, Berkeley……  Wilson was a pioneer in the use of molecular approaches to understanding evolutionary change and reconstruct phylogenies, and a revolutionary contributor to the study of human evolution…..They had checked all the facts and they were sure that they were right…but they weren’t……

After graduating from Berkeley, Cann continued her mtDNA research.  She has since stated that…..“Mitochondrial DNA puts the origin of Homo sapiens much further back and indicates that the Australian Aboriginals arose over 400,000 years ago from two distinct lineages, far earlier than any other racial type.”…..….and further, that……….“The Aboriginal racial group has a much higher rate of mutations than any other racial group, which suggests that the Aboriginals split off from the common ancestor about 400,000 years ago. By the same theory, the Mongoloid originated about 100,000 years ago, and the Negroid and Caucasians about 40,000 years ago.”….
And Professor Cann was not alone in these findings either…Her ‘new’ research led Wilson to visit Australia in 1985 and he too has had to reformulate his previous theory of “Out of Africa”…more and more eminent scientist then added to the ‘picture’ of our global human origins

Roy Simmons of the Commonwealth Serum Laboratory states, “Australian data indicated that the Aborigines actually evolved earlier than the African Negroes. There was no blood evidence to indicate the African Negroes had any connection to the Australian Aborigines.”…..

Professor Lanarch of Sydney University concurred with Simmon’s insistence the Australian Aboriginals stand alone. “We therefore have no hesitation in omitting the Negritos as the ancestors of the Australian Aborigines.” ….

Cann and Simmons, along with a growing number of academics have now concluded that Aboriginal people are far more genetically diverse than any other population….according to Cann, 10 times more than Africans….

Added to the scientific findings was the voice of Keith Windshuttle, an Australian writer and historian [authored The Fabrication of Aboriginal History, etc]……Windshuttle stated that “fifty years of blood genetic research has failed to provide any clue to Aboriginal origins”…and elaborated with “May I state here and now that our extensive blood surveys conducted in Australia, Indonesia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia, produced no genetic evidence that the Negro even entered the Pacific.”

It seemed that everything Marlene was telling me from the Bootheram was the truth…”Forget everything they taught you Stella and begin again with the Lore”, she told me…it was blind leap of faith to begin with, but over time the Bootheram always turns up trumps……

One day I’d asked Marlene, why would the government academics collude to keep this amazing information so secretive?…..Was it because of maintaining land tenure?…..Was it to thwart Native Title recognition of Traditional Ownership pre-crown?… Could this whole ‘Out of Africa’ concept be part of a global government ideology to maintain tenure and control of the global sovereign lands…and could this be why they change the maps and the original geospatial linguistic attributions of the names on those maps?….Marlene smiled……”Now you’re getting it girl” she said……….

What a wise old woman….


I’ll post the full Fairy Emu Dreaming [in full] in the future, and the Song of Wao – that accompanies it … as only extracts appear on this site at the moment…will also post some of the lobby documents in the future too….so, if you’re interested subscribe to my newsletter so you’ll get them…and check out Sean O’Shea – Byron Bay Artist…..some of his beautiful photo’s feature in my posts…just click on his website is in my links…..Hoo Roo



Mount Lindesay is the most significant sacred site of the Githabal people…the Githabal are the marriage clan of the Ngarakbal…these two ancient volcano clans are located on the most eastern point of the Australian continent, where the first light of magnetic ‘Mother Sun’ rises from the ocean and awakens the whole land……


The Ngarakbal and Githabal Bootheram [Dreaming lore] is inextricably interlinked….Bootheram tells of the creation of the land and all the inhabitants of the land….Plants and animal, fish and birds, everything has a Bootheram – and all Bootheram is interlinked…..its Native Science held in oral format and celebrated and related through song, dance and ceremony…Ancient truths held in metaphoric lore….Contemporary scientist’s and physicists would find correlation in disciplines such as morphogenetic’s, crystallography, biology, geology, and hydrology, to name but a [mere] few….the Githabal and Ngarakbal Bootheram is totally beautiful stuff…..and why wouldn’t it be….for they have grown along with this landscape throughout time and space.

I want to share with you a creation Bootheram about Mount Lindesay that was related to Phinney MacPherson [who managed to ensure to name a substantial portion of the landscape after himself when he surveyed it for the crown]…..Anyway, the important person in this is the Githabal Elder who he recorded this Bootheram from…it was a Mr Euston Williams…..Mr Williams was the husband of Charlotte Brown, a Ngarakbal woman from the Tweed Caldera…..Charlotte sang the Ngarakbal ‘portion’ of the Fairy Emu Dreaming [transcontinental songline] about her ancestral country and it’s central significant/sacred Mountain – Wollumbin……

Now, Euston and Charlotte were instrumental in the Civil Rights campaigns of the 1950’s….during those times the crown did not recognise Aboriginal people as being human, and had crudely ‘classified’ them under the Flora and Fauna legislations of the day….back then, one of the prerequisites for legally being a human being was to have an identified religion….So, Euston and Charlotte, along with many other Senior Elders agreed to start speaking & singing about their ‘religion’…they spoke their truth…Bootheram- LORE…and many other Senior Elders from their respective ancestral countries joined them right across the country…..collectively they campaigned for more than a decade [it’s an awesome story]….In 1967 after mounting pressure from the Australia public  the crown rescinded the flora and fauna classification and human rights were granted……the collective force of a positive campaign to speak their ancient truth produced a positive outcome….morphic field resonance…..Bootheram

Euston Williams

The Myth of the Mountain by Eustan Williams

….”Look at that mountain standing up, see how it goes straight up on it’s sides. No man can climb that mountain.  Look at it’s head, through the mist, covered with trees.  I worked as a chainman to Phinney MacPherson, the surveyor, right along this range and, when we come to Jalgumbun, he says to me, “Now Eustan, let me see them steps you say are cut out in this mountain”.  And I pointed out them steps. He stood there, writing in his notebook the story of the mountain that I told him………………That mountain Jalgumbun was once a tree”.Mt Lindsay pic

.”A man went after honey in that tree. He climbed up with the vine-rope round himself and round the tree. And as he climbed he cut footholds with his stone axe.  And his wives were waiting in the forest down below.

“Where are you?”, they called out.  And he called back, “I’m chopping out the honey”.  At last he called out, “”Here it is” and rolled the piece of wood with all the honey in it down to the butt and big roots of the tree.  They sat down in that camp and ate that honey and travelled then away along the range.

That night there was no moon. The women looked out into the night and whispered to each other “oh look what is that ‘something’ over there”….”oh its like a shadow, see, that ‘something’ over there is blocking out the stars”.

And in the morning when they woke they saw the mountain that was never there before. Jalgumbun, standing up against the sky.

Well there’s a tree called Jalgumbun that grows here in the ranges.  It has real soft skin.  The fellas from the mill at Urbenville come with their axes, tractors and their gear, and fell and lop them trees and drag them out from the ranges of their native home….”………


Beautiful stuff Bootheram….It has many layers….and the strength of these beautiful people to keep their traditional lore and custom aflame is an inspiration…..and their is so much more…..if you are interested subscribe to my newsletter….Hoo roo


Mapping the Bootheram – how the West was ‘won’ from the East

The Ngarakbal hold the first portion of one of the important Transcontinental Bootheram Lore’s [Dreaming]…as above so below, it is written in the stars for the Lore to travel on the land through the peoples songs, hence, Songline…… and each tribal cultural block hold their portion of the ‘song’ as It travels across the land….following the stars….ironically it was the same stars that the British followed to Australia

mt warning caldera - with Wollumbin

Lore must always be sung in sequence…..just as one cannot fully understand a play from only half way through the plot…neither can one understand the lore unless it commences at the beginning….

Land and language [dialect or linguistics] are linked…and the name of the clans who hold portions of the ‘song’ is the same name as their dialect…and as the song travels it changes dialect, passing through each ancestral clan Estate….

For the Ngarakbal their central sacred site, Mt Warning/Wollumbin has many names….it depends on the Bootheram that is being related as to which name is used

In historical Bootheram’s each timeframe, or epoch, has a Creator Being …a totem who embodies that time and place…When the Wollumbin volcano was part of the deep ocean it had the totem of the Tiger Shark – and a specific name for that creation ancestor….And as it was ‘sung’ from the waters by the ancestor spirits [skybeings/starlore] the totems change to represent the next timeframe/epoch……The totemic creator spirit changes with every epoch.

One of the ancestor creator spirits was a Turkey….and he also has a Bootheram for his own epoch…The Turkey’s name was Wollumbin…the Tweed Caldera is the best example of an erosion caldera on the planet….Wollumbin Volcano Bootheram of the Turkey and the language of that song is in Galibal dialect…The Galibal were a tribe within the Ngarakbal area…….Gallibal is the sound of a Turkey, and the name of the tribe who hold his Bootheram.

The central plug of the Caldera was named Mt Warning by Captain James Cook when he ‘discovered’ and charted the [so-called] unclaimed east coast for the crown in 1770.

Recently it has had the dual-name of Wollumbin applied and recognised by the Geographical Name Board – who control the mapping.  They incorrectly gazetted the central plug alone, instead of to the whole Volcano that Wollumbin [the creator spirit] created way back in the dreamtime. As a result of this gazettal the ancient lore has been obscured,  because Wollumbin has also been incorrectly attributed to the dialect called Bundjalung…. Administrative bungle by government?….or deliberate move to rewrite history to their advantage?

This ‘administrative bungle’ occurred because the first Police Administrators, who also managed the Aboriginal Protections Boards [which is a nice administrative way of naming slave camps] in the late 1800’s were ordered to collect the languages of the Aboriginal peoples….and they incorrectly classified an entire region of Northern New South Wales as Bundjalung….which is the name of a tribe from the Widjabil who are one of the four groups in the moiety/cultural block of the Yoocum Yoocum…and in traditional lore and custom the Bundjalung tribe [proper] has no jurisdiction over Gallibal Land, Language or Lore.

Interestingly, Bungil-lung  is also part of  the ‘Lung’ Lore – another songline which travels up from the South Gippsland of Victoria along the east coast…. I won’t cover that now but will explain that in later posts….or subscribe to my newsletter for more in-depth info.

Anyway, the original name of the cultural block that the Ngarakbal and Githabal come from was the Yoocum Yoocum….but that fact had been stealthily buried as part and parcel of the conquering and claiming of the east coast of Australia – and as we all know, rewriting history to the benefit of the conquerors is the classic pattern that has occurred all over the planet…Cultural genocide essentially…..and there have been many wars written out of the historical records…including the fact that only the east coast of Australia was claimed by the Crown, because the other four fifths had been claimed by the Dutch….and these facts have also been conveniently obliterated from the contemporary records of today since the Boer War – British v’s the Dutch – ousted the Dutch and allowed for the Crown to claim the rest of the Australian continent. As you can see on this pre- Cook map of New Holland below….the east coast had not been charted, and therefore not claimed according to Northern Hemispheres laws of tenure.New Holand map -pre British

Anyway, back to the east coast history…..

Joshua Bray, the first Tweed/Byron Shires Police Magistrate collected the Ngarakbal’s linguistic records in the late 1800’s under orders from the crown who were busy fighting the Dutch at the time….Joshua Bray is pictured below

Joshua Bray - headshot

Using the legal process of applying Aboriginal language to landscape for the use of naming geographic features was required in order to oust the Dutch who had used their own language to map the west…..So,  Aboriginal language was used to validate the crown maps and thus their legal tenure of Australia….

These Police records of Joshua Brays Ngarakbal language were submitted as evidence to alter the gazettal of the name of Mt Warning to Wollumbin in the mid 2000’s – as part of the contemporary governments Reconciliation process of dual naming significant sites – Though government was recognising the Aboriginal significance of ancestral sites it was, at the same time, stealthily changing the ancestral attributions from the original truth [lore, land and language of the Yoocum Yoocum] to the administrative records of the Police [Bundjalung]….wiping out Yoocum Yoocum completely from the Lands records….This administrative sleight of hand trick then travels all the way up to the UN, and thus, the U.N Geographical Names Board now endorse the bogus historical referencing of Bundjalung.  The ancestral names on the maps have been sanitised and the ability for Aboriginal Native Title claimants to prove pre-colonial title of their own country has been thwarted……Cultural genocide. Pretty dastardly manipulative stuff isn’t it…..and yet another verse in the ancient Starlore Bootheram of the Ngarakbal and Githabal people .



Transcontinental Skin Lore commences in Ngarakbal Githabal Country

The ‘Kidjabal’ or Githabul ‘Skin’ are the traditional cultural marriage clan of the Ngarakbal…This ancient ancestral lore begins with Landscape Creator Spirit journeys, starting from the Tweed Coast and traveling across the continent,  linking to all the ancestral countries of this vast ancient continent…each cultural block holds the lore within its own ancestral landscape and does not encroach beyond the territorial boundaries of another tribal country .


There are several important Song lines ‘holding’ the Dreaming of ancestral creator journeys commencing from the most eastern most point of the Tweed Caldera, in Ngarakbal lands ….This oral [linguistic] Bootheram [Dreaming lore] links the ancestral names of natural features [places].  The right names  has profound meaning to the ancestral Aboriginal people because Bootheram is ‘sung’ [linguistically]…. Thus Spiritual Lore is dependant on the faithful maintenance of the original linguistics of the local area…. Lore, Land and Language are LINKED by and through the Bootheram [Dreaming] and must never be changed.

The ancestral Ngarakbal creators sites and the traditional lore’s and customs which govern these, all sit within the landscape of the Wollumbin Volcano; and the Githabal’s creator sites, along with their traditional lore’s and customs sit within their ancestral lands of the Main Range/Focal Peak Volcano….these two tribal volcano’s lore’s are linked by the ancestral beings traveling journey of creation …and this same system of totemic site and skin association is repeated throughout the Yoocum Yoocum and in turn flows out across the vast Australia continent…..its perfect native biological science…..but more on that later


Whatever happened to the ‘Yoocum Yoocum’ ?


The Githabal and Ngarakwal [Nganduwal] are part of the ‘Yoocum Yoocum’ Moiety


The East Coast ‘Keepers’of the Feathered Serpent / Rainbow Serpent Traditions of the ancient ‘Bird Tribes’ of Australia…

The ancestral lands of these people are located in some of the most beautiful [and expensive] real estate in the entire country…..from north of the famous Surfer Paradise to south of Byron Bay….it really is nothing short of a miracle that the traditional totemic culture and lore of these ancient tribes survived the relentless invasion of crown colonialists. But survive [and thrive] they did…Its an amazing story of keeping the embers of an ancient fire alive despite blatant attempts to extinguish it forever. But more on that subject later. Right now here is some of what past experts have recorded about the Ngarakwal Githabal people and how they fit into the ‘cultural block’ of the most eastern moiety of this ancient land

One has to remember that the ancestral peoples didn’t write their language, and it wasn’t until the first studies by post-colonial anthropologists and academics that the original oral traditions became text. Translations were based on a somewhat myopic perspective of the conquerors and most of the information was collected from surviving tribal peoples who were either enslaved or incarcerated in those times. 

Anthropologist Radcliffe-Brown refers to this same cultural bloc as the Yukum or Yukumbil tribe;

Kidjabal was Radcliffe Browns way of recording the tribal dialect of Githabal….many and various versions of spellings occur throughout the records….here is what he had to say about the Githabal and Ngarakbal peoples…..

“This large tribe, named in it’s negative [yukum = No] occupying the region of the Richmond and Clarence Rivers in the north of NSW and extending over the Qld Border. Their country extends about 100 miles north and south and about 80 miles east and west.  Within the north there are considerable local differences of dialect, and a number of the sub-tribes are recognised.  The sub-tribe about which I have most information is the Kidjabal of the country at the head of the Clarence River “…Radcliffe Brown 1929A:400

Archilbald Metson

And then there was Archilbald Metson. He was, at one point in his career, the administrator of the Aboriginal Protection Board. This was a Police/Crown administrated board that  governed all the Aboriginal Missions and Labour farms…..    metson

“All the Tribes from Nerang to the Clarence spoke variations of the great “Yoocum-Yoocum” dialect [Yoocumbah],  which went west to New England and down to the head of the Condamine at Warwick,  where it joined the Wacca-Wacca of the Darling Downs”…Metson 1894

The “Yoocum-Yoocum dialect which extended from the Logan River south to midway between the Clarence and the Belinger River, and all New England from Armidale to near Warwick, whence it was joined by the Wacca-Wacca of the Darling Downs,  the dialect which came down the north side of the Brisbane River to the sea and Toorbul Point and down the Burnett to the sea at Bundaberg”..Metson 1923

 “On Nerang Creek at that time [1869-70] was a Tweed river blackfellow called Tulaman, afterwards killed in a myall row where bad rum played a leading part in the programme….Tullman was my sole companion in a ten days’ tour on the MacPherson Range. He belonged to the Brunswick “Minyahgo-Wallo”, who extended from the Nerang to the “Amburra” blacks on the Richmond and the “Wadjie Wadjie” tribe of the Clarence”..Metson


And then there was the Rev. Hugh Livingstone, a Presbyterian minister who resided in the Richmond District for Ten years between 1876 and 1886 [Rowland et al 2001]  In 1892 Livingstone published a paper entitled

‘A short grammar and vocabulary of the dialect spoken by the Minyug [Minyung] people on the North East Coast of NSW’.  The contents of this paper are generally well known, and have been extensively quoted and cited in the literature [ see for example Sharpe 1985,  Steels 1983, Crowley 1978].  According to Livingstone, the people occupying the Byron-Brunswick area spoke ‘Minyug’,  [that is the people who say minyug for what?],  one of a number of dialects of an unnamed language that was spoken over a large area from the Clarence River in NSW to the Albert River in Qld [Mckeown2007;  Curr1877]

It is Noteworthy that Livingstone despite having resided in the Richmond area for 10 years does not identify the greater dialect area as being attributable to a group known as BUNDJALUNG…..nor does Radcliffe Brown…..nor does Metson……..So, What happened to the ‘Yoocum Yoocum”?????

Well, thankfully, the surviving descendants of the Yoocum Yoocum are alive and well…despite governance attempts to eradicate their ancient lore and culture from existence…but every day is still a struggle to survive intact in the corporate structure that deems any pre-crown native tenure to the lands as an obstacle they could do without

TODAY corporate governance HAS ALTERED ANCESTRAL LORE TO CLAIM and promote NORTHERN NSW AS BEING the ‘BUNDJALUNG NATION’,  apparently [blatantly] eliminating all reference to early ethno-historical and anthropological data thus causing extensive damage to true Aboriginal Culture, Lore,  Religious & Ritual practicesAcademic fraud [ or collusion] can be identified when scrutiny of academic research timelines reveals that all the ‘confusion’ about which ancestral tribal peoples belong to which ancestral tribal land is occuring AFTER the Lands Rights legislations were created and Native Title was first achieved in Australia, both of which give Traditional Owners the ability to claim un-used  crown lands .

A clear pattern of the same manipulation of the early ethohistorical and anthropological data exists the throughout the country.

It appears to many in the public that government [MOU] contracted universities,  academics & local historical societies who have known access to the unadulterated early ethno-historical and linguistic materials and even carry them in their collections,  have either omitted them completely or have not correctly cited that earlier data,  and are instead altering their reports in apparent empathy of governances Private Asset development Agendas, such as Crown Lands [Report No54/01 Jan 2008 –Local Gov Private Partnerships & Asset Development]

Further; the collusion appears to have a dual function of the Academic and Historical facilities altered data  ensuring them Government favour & funding for facilities,  by enact dispossession of ancestral moieties from their traditional lands [crown lands and waters] that governance wishes to profiteer from….contractual formats shifts governments duty of care to protect STATE and Archival records integrity  by transferring data creation [and subsequent legal obligations & repercussions]  outside of  the Government departments…..but more on that later


Butheram Guyoomgan – Story of the Stars

The Githabul and its marriage clan the Ngarakbal have an ancient history which is told through their Butheram (stories) and yaribirri (songs) that connect people with their country through pathways and song lines.


This is a lovely story about the flame of traditional culture reigniting in a strong positive manner despite the invasion and dispersal attempts of the colonisation processes

For full story click HERE..


Transcontinental Songline begins in Ngarakbal Githabal Country

Creative journeys abound in  Aboriginal Mythology. Two cross the Australian continent & begin from ‘Cugin’ [Cudgen] in the ancestral lands of the Ngarakbal Githabal moieties….


The following Bootheram is called the Fairy Emu Dreaming and is one of several ‘Bootherams [Dreaming Lores] about the totemic journey of the ancestor creator spirits across the land.  It was recorded from Charlotte Brown in the 1950’s…….Charlotte Brown was the Ngarakbal wife of Githabal man Euston Williams…

IMG_295163766702405 - seanoshea.com (2)

The Fairy Emu Dreaming

…”….A big rock stands in the sea six miles from Byron Bay

A man named Nguthungulli made that rock. Nguthungulli is our Father.

He’s the Father of the whole world.

He’s the man we’ve got to be afraid of.

No matter what we do wrong, or where we do it, He’ll know.

 And no man has seen Him.

IMG_295163766702405 - seanoshea.com (1)

“….Nguthungulli had a cave in the rock.  After he made the rock, he told the four fairy woman, ‘gilarmavell’, to stay there…”.

“….Then he went away from there and walked inland from the coast.  He traveled over the mountains with his dog Korung.  He had a walking stick, and when he put the stick into the ground He left behind a stone like a basin..”…..

…”As he traveled He left the bean-trees, and He named the different places on His journey.  He named Woodenbong [where we are now], Nguthumbung.”

“He went over the range to the head of the Condamine.  When he knelt down at the river to drink, He left his handprints there in the stone…”…….

“….Nguthungulli went away out into the desert, towards the sunset.  In our language we say that Nguthungulli is away out in the Borrgorr now that means the sea. …”…..

“…The old people knew that the sea was out there.  They knew that whichever way the butheram, the story of Nguthungalli went, it was towards the sea, Borrgorr.  You can hear the sound of the sea in that word.  They had seen then that we were on an island.”……….

“….Nguthungulli has big rocks in the Borrgorr,  the sea, where he lives today.  Out in the caves in those rocks in the sea, Nguthungulli has four daughters and one son.  And his son is called Yar Birrain…”….


 Ngarakwal [Yoocum] Totemic Lore as told by Charlotte Williams [nee Brown] of the Ngarakwal Githabal moieties – East Coast Australia……The name Yar Birrain has several meanings , one of which is “First Light”….The summit of this sacred Mountain [known as Mt Warning] is the first land in Australia to receive the dawn rays of ‘Mother Sun’….